Great Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt [TTC Video]
11 August 2015, 22:37
Course No 3588 | AVI, XviD, 782 kbps, 640x480 | MP3, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 12x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 2.5GB
No great civilization continues to speak to us like that of ancient Egypt. But what is it about this ancient civilization that still captures our imaginations? What made Egypt special, allowing it to grow, in Professor Bob Brier's words, "from a scattering of villages across the Nile to the greatest power the world had ever seen"?
Professor Brier has designed this course to focus on the fascinating leaders of ancient Egypt. The information in this course is also covered in our more extensive course, The History of Ancient Egypt.
"My thesis in Great Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt is that what made Egypt great were the people—individuals who did great things," says Professor Brier. "By recounting the lives and accomplishments of the great ones of Egypt, we will present a history of Egypt spreading over 30 centuries. By the time we come to the last ruler of Egypt, Cleopatra, we will have peered into almost every aspect of ancient Egyptian life, seen what made Egypt great, and what finally brought about its downfall.
"My hope is that by the end of the course you will have a sense that you personally know the men and women who made Egypt the greatest nation of the ancient world."
A Great Teacher and Egyptologist
Professor Brier is an Egyptologist and specialist in mummies who knows the ancient Egyptians—literally—from the inside out. In fact, in 1994, Dr. Brier became the first person in 2,000 years to mummify a human cadaver in the ancient Egyptian style. This research was the subject of a National Geographic television special, Mr. Mummy.
Relaxed, matter-of-fact, and wryly humorous, he weaves into the stories of the great pharaohs the daily realities of Egyptian life. You learn, for example, that the origin of eye makeup was not due to vanity. Instead, makeup was ground on small, personal palettes and worn by every Egyptian for the same reasons modern athletes wear black eyeliner under their eyes: to absorb the sun's glare.
A Palette Launches 3,000 Years of Imagery
It is a quite different palette—that of Narmer, the king who unified Egypt—that marks our real introduction to Egypt's great rulers. Considered the first historical document, the "Narmer Palette" reveals images of traditions Narmer created that would endure for 3,000 years, including the double crown of Egypt and the "smiting pose" in which all pharaohs ever after would be shown.
Just as scholars look to the Narmer Palette as their earliest message from Egypt, it is the pyramids that perhaps serve that role for the rest of us.
The pharaoh Sneferu, seeking a suitable way to house his own burial chamber, taught Egypt how to perfect the pyramid, a structure whose origins lay in the need to protect desert graves from exposure by the wind. Professor Brier makes it clear, however, that pyramids were far from Sneferu's only achievements.
A Female Pharaoh Lost to History
One of Egypt's greatest rulers, the female pharaoh Hatshepsut, raised magnificent obelisks at the Temple of Karnak and built what Professor Brier calls "perhaps the most beautiful temple in all of Egypt," Deir el-Bahri. The inscriptions on the temple's walls are the first known depictions of sub-Saharan Africa; Hatshepsut was so powerful a king she was able to send a trading expedition there.
Ironically, most of the evidence of Hatshepsut's existence was systematically erased after her death; Egyptians simply did not want to acknowledge that a woman had been king.
Professor Brier continues with the tale of one of Egypt's most controversial pharaohs, Akhenaten, who tried to alter the three stabilizing principles of Egyptian society—the religious, military, and artistic traditions of the most conservative nation on earth—and almost destroyed Egypt in the process. Akhenaten's story left a legacy the ancients would attempt to erase. Ironically, this forgotten pharaoah would be the father of the most famous pharaoh in modern times: the boy-king Tutankhamen.
Tutankhamen: Murdered by His Successor?
The discovery of Tutankhamen's tomb by Howard Carter in 1922 is the most scrutinized episode in the history of Egyptology, and Professor Brier leads a fascinating exploration into the world of Egyptian tombs.
For those who love a good mystery, Professor Brier introduces his own theory that Tutankhamen was actually murdered by Aye, the vizier of Egypt, as part of a successful plot to gain the crown for himself.
The next major subject in the series is Ramses II, or Ramses the Great. His 67-year reign was the longest of all the pharaohs, but the last two-thirds of that reign began with a treaty with Egypt's ancient Hittite enemy and bear little resemblance to his early years of war, conquest, and monument-building.
Ramses has been reputed to be the pharaoh of the biblical exodus. And though there is no archaeological evidence to support the story, Professor Brier offers some tantalizing connections to what we know of Ramses's actual life.
Nubia Tries to Restore Egypt's Greatness
After the death of Ramses, Egypt entered a long decline. As Egypt weakened, Nubian neighbors to the south, in what is now Sudan, grew strong. They eventually moved north taking control and trying to rebuild—primarily through the efforts of five great Nubian kings—the great Egyptian traditions they had seen crumble away.
Rather than conquer Egypt, they restored it. They celebrated Egyptian religious festivals and even took over some Egyptian burial practices. The first of these kings, a ruler named Piye, even built a pyramid, though it had been 1,000 years since the last Egyptian pyramid had risen from the desert.
From the Nubians, Professor Brier takes you into the Greek era of Egyptian history, beginning with the career of Alexander the Great. He discusses the three great events that marked his sojourn in Egypt: the declaration by the oracle at Siwa that Alexander's father was "the Sun"; his crowning as Pharaoh that the oracle's pronouncement made possible; and his creation of the city of Alexandria, which Alexander mapped out by dropping a trail of grain to show where the streets should go.
The Reign of the Ptolomies
The death of Alexander gave rise to the reign of a series of Ptolemies—15 rulers in all—beginning with Ptolemy I.
Running Egypt like a business, the early Ptolemies had some notable achievements, including Ptolemy I's building of Alexandria's Pharos Lighthouse and its extraordinary library.
The Ptolemies were unable to sustain their brilliant beginning. The last Ptolemy was Cleopatra, the enigmatic Grecian ruler who learned Egypt's language and tried to resurrect both the nation's religion and greatness. Her valiant attempts to save Egypt, with the aid of Julius Caesar, and afterwards with Marc Antony, were doomed. Egypt, no longer a nation, would become a Roman province.
- King Narmer—The Unification of Egypt
- Sneferu—The Pyramid Builder
- Hatshepsut—Female Pharaoh
- Akhenaten—Heretic Pharaoh
- Tutankhamen—The Lost Pharaoh
- Tutankhamen—A Murder Theory
- Ramses the Great—The Early Years
- Ramses the Great—The Twilight Years
- The Great Nubians—Egypt Restored
- Alexander the Great—Anatomy of a Legend
- The First Ptolemies—Greek Greatness
- Cleopatra—The Last Pharaoh
The History of Ancient Egypt [TTC Video]
11 August 2015, 22:31
Course No 350 | AVI, XviD, 416 kbps, 640x464 | MP3, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 48x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 5.88GB
Ancient Egyptian civilization is so grand that our minds sometimes have difficulty adjusting to it. Consider time. Ancient Egyptian civilization lasted 3,000 years, longer than any other on the planet. When the young pharaoh Tutankhamen ruled Egypt, the pyramids of Giza had already been standing well over 1,000 years. When Cleopatra came to power, Tutankhamen had been in his tomb more than 1,000 years.
Consider scale. The only one of the Eight Wonders of the Ancient World still standing, the Great Pyramid of Cheops, was the tallest building in the world until well into the 1800s. It covers 13.5 acres at the base and contains 2.3 million limestone blocks, weighing 5,000 pounds each on average. Tens of thousands of men labored to raise this tomb—but they were not slaves; they were free farmers and artisans. The social organization alone of this project humbles most modern achievements. And it was built in 2550 B.C., roughly 2,000 years before Rome was founded.
Consider its mystery. Egypt was the most advanced of any ancient civilization. Yet, even after deciphering the hieroglyphs, Egypt remains one of the most mysterious. Scarabs, mummies, obelisks, sphinxes—their civilization was extraordinary and yet so "other" from what we live today.
Professor Bob Brier regularly hosts and contributes to programs on ancient Egypt for The History Channel and The Learning Channel. He has served as Director of the National Endowment for the Humanities "Egyptology Today" Program and has twice been selected as a Fulbright Scholar. He is also the recipient of the David Newton Award for Teaching Excellence. He is the perfect guide to take you through the tombs, mummies, and history of Egypt.
Professor Brier combines the precision and care of a scientist with a novelist's feel for plot, action, and character. His approach brings together the best that the narrative and scientific schools of history have to offer.
"Professor Brier's style of presentation is as impressive as it is engaging, and combines the skills of a master teacher with an encyclopedic knowledge of his subject. The History of Ancient Egypt is enthusiastically recommended."
—Harold McFarland, Regional Editor, Midwest Book Review
"In these lectures on ancient Egypt, the enthusiasm of Professor Brier is so infectious, the material chosen so fascinating, and the presentation so pleasant that any adult listener could enrich his knowledge of history with enjoyment."
The Big Picture
In this course, you chronologically survey the full 3,000 years of recorded ancient Egyptian history. Because Egyptian history lasted so long, Egyptologists divide it into three periods called Kingdoms:
- The Old Kingdom saw the beginnings of nationhood for Egypt under one supreme ruler, the pharaoh. During this time, the pyramids were built and the rules of Egyptian art were established that would govern for 3,000 years.
- The Middle Kingdom, a period of stabilizing after the Old Kingdom collapsed, saw a nation fighting to regain its greatness.
- The New Kingdom, the glamour period of ancient Egypt, was when all the stars—Hatshepsut, Tutankhamen, Ramses the Great, Cleopatra, and others—appeared.
Professor Brier begins with a note on his approach.
"To a great extent, the fun of history is in the details. Knowing what kind of wine Tutankhamen preferred makes him come alive.
"Knowing that Ramses the Great was crippled by arthritis for the last decade of his long life makes us more sympathetic to the boastful monarch who fathered more than 100 children.
"If we understand what it was like to be a miner sent to the turquoise mines in the Sinai in the summer, we will feel a kinship with our long-dead counterparts.
"As we wind our way chronologically through 30 centuries of history, we will pause repeatedly to look at the details that make up the big picture."
The first five lectures are foundational. Professor Brier shows what Egypt was like before writing, how Egyptologists piece together the history of ancient Egypt, and how hieroglyphs were deciphered. These lectures show how Egyptology has been one ongoing detective story—and reveal Napoleon's massive contribution to what we know.
The Old Kingdom
In Lectures 6–10, you see the Egyptians rise to a greatness far surpassing any other people in the Near East, learn of a king who united Egypt by might, and discover a pharaoh who showed Egypt how to build the pyramids.
While you see how the pyramids were built, you learn just what it was that made Egypt great. At the end of these lectures, you see Egypt collapse into a dark age about which little is known, and with Professor Brier, you try to assess what happened.
The Middle Kingdom
Lectures 11–15 discuss Egypt's successful attempt to pull itself together, only to collapse once again. You study heroic kings from the south who battle to unite the country and establish a peace that would last for two centuries—as long as the United States has existed. Then Egypt is invaded by the mysterious people called the Hyksos, as the kings of the south battle Egypt back to greatness. These lectures also look in detail at the Old Testament story of Joseph in Egypt to see what light it might shed on this period.
The New Kingdom
Lectures 16–25 deal with the fabulous Dynasty XVIII, the period of Egypt's greatest wealth and personalities. Examining in-depth the kings and queens of this period, you study:
- Hatshepsut, the woman who ruled as king and whose history was systematically erased from Egyptian records
- Akhenaten, the first monotheist—and, arguably, the first individual—in history, who changed the religion of Egypt
- Tutankhamen, the son of Akhenaten, who became the most famous of Egypt's kings when his undisturbed tomb was discovered in 1922
- Egyptian medicine and why Egyptian physicians were justly the most famous in the ancient world.
Lectures 26–28 are a brief excursion into Professor Brier's specialty: mummies. You even learn how to make one. You also see that mummies are like books—packed with information—if you know how to read them.
Lectures 29–35 focus on the end of the New Kingdom, the last great epoch of Egyptian history, dominated by Ramses the Great. Professor Brier discusses the unnamed pharaoh of the Exodus, as well as Egyptian magic.
Greatness, but under Greek Rule
Lectures 36–41 recount the invasion of Egypt by a series of conquering peoples, including Nubians, Libyans, and Persians. Professor Brier examines the causes of Egypt's decline and the ways the falling pharaohs reached back 1,500 years to grasp at greatness.
Lectures 42–47 chart the rule of the Ptolemies, Greek kings. This period begins with the conquest of Alexander the Great and ends with Cleopatra. For 200 years, once-mighty Egypt was ruled by kings named Ptolemy, all of whom descended from General Ptolemy, who served under Alexander. These lectures examine what life was like for an Egyptian under the oppressive rule of their Greek masters. And they detail some of the achievements of this period, including the library at Alexandria.
Lecture 48 concludes the series with a summary of Egypt's legacy and suggestions for continuing study.
- Prehistoric Egypt
- Ancient Egyptian Thought
- Napoleon and the Beginnings of Egyptology
- The Rosetta Stone and Much More
- The First Nation in History
- The Rise of the Old Kingdom
- Sneferu, the Pyramid Builder
- The Great Pyramid of Giza
- The End of the Old Kingdom
- The First Intermediate Period
- The Middle Kingdom - Dynasty XI
- The Middle Kingdom - Dynasty XII
- The Second Intermediate Period
- Joseph in Egypt
- The Beginning of the New Kingdom - The Fabulous XVIIIth Dynasty
- Queen Hatshepsut
- Tuthmosis III - King At Last
- The Fabulous XVIIIth Dynasty Rolls On
- Akhenaten the Heretic Pharaoh
- The Discovery of Tutankhamen's Tomb
- The Murder of Tutankhamen - A Theory
- Medicine - The Necessary Art
- The End of Dynasty XVIII
- Mummification - How We Know What We Know
- What Mummies Tell Us
- Making a Modern Mummy
- Dynasty XIX Begins
- Ramses the Great - The Early Years
- Ramses the Great - The Later Years
- The Exodus - Did It Happen
- The Decline of Dynasty XIX
- Dynasty XX - The Decline Continues
- Ancient Egyptian Magic
- Dynasty XXI - Egypt Divided
- Dynasty XXII - Egypt United
- Dynasty XXV - The Nubians Have Their Day
- Dynasty XXVI - The Saite Period
- Dynasty XXVII - The Persians
- Dynasties XXVIII to XXXI - The Beginning of the End
- Alexander the Great
- The First Ptolemies
- The Middle Ptolemies - The Decline
- Animal Mummies
- Cleopatra's Family
- Cleopatra - The Last Ptolemy
- The Grand Finale
The Upright Thinkers [Audiobook]
11 August 2015, 22:28
2015 | MP3@64 kbps + EPUB | 12 hrs 28 mins | 353.32MB
A few million years ago, our ancestors came down from the trees and began to stand upright, freeing our hands to create tools and our minds to grapple with the world around us.
Leonard Mlodinow takes us on a passionate and inspiring tour through the exciting history of human progress and the key events in the development of science. In the process, he presents a fascinating new look at the unique characteristics of our species and our society that helped propel us from stone tools to written language and through the birth of chemistry, biology, and modern physics to today’s technological world.
Along the way he explores the cultural conditions that influenced scientific thought through the ages and the colorful personalities of some of the great philosophers, scientists, and thinkers: Galileo, who preferred painting and poetry to medicine and dropped out of university; Isaac Newton, who stuck needlelike bodkins into his eyes to better understand changes in light and color; and Antoine Lavoisier, who drank nothing but milk for two weeks to examine its effects on his body. Charles Darwin, Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and many lesser-known but equally brilliant minds also populate these pages, each of their stories showing how much of human achievement can be attributed to the stubborn pursuit of simple questions (why? how?), bravely asked.
The Upright Thinkers is a book for science lovers and for anyone interested in creative thinking and in our ongoing quest to understand our world. At once deeply informed, accessible, and infused with the author’s trademark wit, this insightful work is a stunning tribute to humanity’s intellectual curiosity.
More than Two: A Practical Guide to Ethical Polyamory [Audiobook]
11 August 2015, 22:26
2015 | MP3@64 kbps + EPUB | 15 hrs 33 mins | 441.1MB
Can you love more than one person? Can you have multiple romantic partners without jealousy or cheating? Absolutely! Polyamorous people have been paving the way through trial and painful error. Now the new book More Than Two can help you find your own way. With completely new material and a fresh approach, Franklin Veaux and Eve Rickert wrote More Than Two to expand on and update the themes and ideas in the wildly popular polyamory website morethantwo.com.
From ancient Greece through the many dynasties of China and to current practices of nonmonogamy, people have openly engaged in multiple intimate relationships. Not until the late 20th century, however, was a word coined that encapsulated the practice, philosophies, edicts, and ethics: polyamory (poly = many + amore = love).
For Franklin Veaux, who has been polyamorous for his entire adult life, the emerging framework and subsequent vocabulary for his lifestyle was a light in the dark. Candidly sharing his experiences and thoughts online catapulted his website, morethantwo.com, among the first dedicated to the poly lifestyle, to one of the top-ranking on the subject.
In recent years, as more people have discovered polyamory as a legitimate and desirable option for how they conduct their relationships, Franklin and one of his partners, Eve Rickert, saw that there was a growing need for a comprehensive guide to the lifestyle. More Than Two is that guide.
The Brain's Way of Healing [Audiobook]
11 August 2015, 22:24
2015 | MP3@64 kbps + EPUB | 14 hrs 50 mins | 418.27MB
The New York Times best-selling author of The Brain That Changes Itself presents astounding advances in neuroplasticity.
In The Brain That Changes Itself, Norman Doidge described the most important breakthrough in our understanding of the brain in four hundred years: the discovery that the brain can change its own structure and function in response to mental experience - what we call neuroplasticity.
His revolutionary new book shows, for the first time, how the amazing process of neuroplastic healing really works. It describes natural, non-invasive avenues into the brain provided by the forms of energy around us - light, sound, vibration, movement - which pass through our senses and our bodies to awaken the brain's own healing capacities without producing unpleasant side effects. Doidge explores cases where patients alleviated years of chronic pain or recovered from debilitating strokes that had plateaued; children on the autistic spectrum or with learning disorders normalizing; symptoms of multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral palsy radically improved, and other near-miracle recoveries. And we learn how to vastly reduce the risk of dementia with simple approaches anyone can use.
For centuries it was believed that the brain's complexity prevented recovery from damage or illness. The Brain's Way of Healing shows that this very sophistication is the source of a unique kind of healing. As he did so lucidly in The Brain That Changes Itself, Doidge uses stories to present exciting, cutting-edge science with practical real-world applications, and principles that everyone can apply to improve their brain's performance and health.
Buddha Standard Time: Awakening to the Infinite Possibilities of Now [Audiobook]
11 August 2015, 22:22
2011 | MP3 VBR V0 + EPUB | 7 hrs 11 mins | 540.62MB
Buddha Standard Time shares one of the great realizations of Buddhism, one that anyone can learn to apply. Buddhist wisdom teaches that the minutes and hours of our days do not simply march from future to present to past—looming, engulfing us, passing us by forever. Rather, each moment is intersected by a fourth dimension, a dimension of timelessness. Only by accessing that timeless dimension, the Buddha believed, can we learn to fully inhabit the now.
As an alternative to our ceaseless hustle and bustle, Surya Das offers listeners the possibility of living in Buddha Standard Time. Buddhists and non-Buddhists alike will discover reasons and inspirations, tools and techniques that not only significantly reduce the amount of stress in our lives, but help us find more focus, fulfillment, creativity, and even wisdom. The Buddha knew we're always free to live fully and completely in the present moment, and that doing so frees us from the burden of the past and the anxiety about the future. Living in Buddha Standard Time is in no way antithetical to modern life. Far from being at the mercy of time's demands, we will finally realize that we have, in fact, all the time in the world.
Hurry Up and Meditate [Audiobook]
11 August 2015, 22:20
2008 | MP3 VBR V0 + EPUB | 4 hrs 47 mins | 517.3MB
For anyone who wants to start meditating but has been struggling to get to the cushion, here are all the motivation and tools you need to achieve greater balance, better health and a more panoramic perspective of life.
Hurry Up and Meditate has been written for people in a hurry and its message is simple: meditation will help you combat stress, cultivate happiness, enhance your performance, realise your goals and attain mastery of your mental, emotional and material destiny.
If meditation was available in capsule form, it would be the biggest-selling drug of all time. It has been scientifically proven to deliver highly effective stress relief, boost our immune systems and dramatically slow the aging process. It has also been shown to make us much happier and more effective thinkers. Given all the physical and psychological benefits, why aren't more of us doing it?
In his thought-provoking and entertaining book, David Michie explains the nuts and bolts of meditation. As a busy professional, as well as long-term meditator, he also gives a first-hand account of how to integrate this transformational practice into everyday life. Combining leading edge science with timeless wisdom, Hurry Up and Meditate provides all the motivation and tools you need to achieve greater balance, better health and a more panoramic perspective on life.
Chi Kung for Women's Health and Sexual Vitality [EPUB]
11 August 2015, 16:37
2014 | EPUB | 4.07MB
This fully illustrated guide explains how to use Chi Kung to balance hormones, offset abnormal cell growth, prevent uterine cancer, and restore sexual vigor to the female reproductive system. It provides exercises to open the energetic pathways connected to the female reproductive organs and clear the energy blockages that lead to sexual dysfunction and illness, including the practice of chi weight lifting—advanced Kegel-type exercises using a jade egg—that stimulates age-delaying hormones and strengthens the pelvic floor. Includes dietary guidance, restorative cleanses, and herbal remedies to further support female reproductive health and the maintenance of sexual desire.
Sitting Kills, Moving Heals [EPUB]
11 August 2015, 16:35
2011 | EPUB | 1.7MB
This groundbreaking study demonstrates how the prevalent problems of obesity, ailing health, and lack of energy can all be easily improved simply by using the power of gravity. The survey is based on the author’s research into how weightlessness weakens astronauts’ muscles, bones, and overall well-being, suggesting ways to incorporate gravity into everyday life and illustrating how it can increase fitness as well as prevent aging.
Addressing those who spend more than half their lives sitting and therefore struggle to benefit from even the most strenuous gym workouts, this practical, easy-to-follow action plan outlines simple gravity-resisting activities such as standing, walking, and dancing, guaranteed to produce better results than diet and exercise plans.
Alan Lacer's Woodturning Projects & Techniques [EPUB]
11 August 2015, 16:34
2015 | EPUB + PDF | 30/21.48MB
Selected from more than 15 years of articles from one of the country's top turners, Alan Lacer's Woodturning Projects & Techniques has everything you need to learn to turn and take your lathe skills to the next level.
This book includes an in-depth look at techniques, tools and chucks that will help perfect your core turning skills. You'll learn the right tools to use, how to handle them safely and how to maintain them. Lacer's expert instruction helps you master the bowl gouge, the spindle-roughing gouge, the skew and other essential turning tools. You'll also gain insight into finishing techniques, French polishing and working with spalted wood.
Once you’ve sharpened your skills with the Tools & Techniques section, put your new knowledge to the test with 20 beautiful projects covering a wide range of turned forms and turning techniques.
- Sharpen your end-grain hollowing skills by turning a lovely wine goblet
- Practice turning spheres by creating your own bocce ball lawn game
- Gain insight into making multiples by turning matching table legs
- Turn a table lamp to practice flowing contours
- Learn how to work with green wood by making a natural-edge bowl
- And much more!
Complete with expert instruction, step-by-step photos, guides to sources and materials and tips for avoiding common pitfalls, this book is sure to help you improve your turning craft – and make some stunning pieces in the process.
The Complete Color Survival in the Southwest [EPUB]
11 August 2015, 16:32
2014 | EPUB | 8.36MB
The color edition of the Complete Survival in the Southwest. The Complete Survival in the Southwest is a compilation of all 6 of the Survival in the Southwest books written by John Arizona Bushman Campbell. This has been called the encyclopedia of desert survival. This book has taken 7 years to write and all demonstrations and photos were done by the author. Each subject will take you deeper into the world of knowledge and shows you just how to get out alive should a wilderness situation arise. This book focuses on the skill set of survival and offers real world experience from someone that has been there and lived it.
The Thames and Hudson Dictionary of Art and Artists [EPUB]
11 August 2015, 16:31
1994 | EPUB | 47.03MB
International and up to date, this extensively illustrated and cross-referenced dictionary provides information on over 2500 artists, paintings, sculptures, drawings, prints, schools and movements, including unique information on contemporary art and artists, and on techniques, materials and. Includes over 200 new entries.
The Architecture of Light [EPUB]
11 August 2015, 16:30
2011 | EPUB + PDF | 20.8/7.79MB
Reviewing the use of natural light by architects in the era of electricity, this book aims to show that natural light not only remains a potential source of order in architecture, but that natural lighting strategies impose a usefully creative discipline on design.
Considering an approach to environmental context that sees light as a critical aspect of place, this book explores current attitudes to natural light by offering a series of in-depth studies of recent projects and the particular lighting issues they have addressed. It gives a more nuanced appraisal of these lighting strategies by setting them within their broader topographic, climatic and cultural contexts.
Too Big to Jail: How Prosecutors Compromise with Corporations [EPUB]
11 August 2015, 16:28
2014 | EPUB | 1.05MB
American courts routinely hand down harsh sentences to individual convicts, but a very different standard of justice applies to corporations. Too Big to Jail takes readers into a complex, compromised world of backroom deals, for an unprecedented look at what happens when criminal charges are brought against a major company in the United States.
Federal prosecutors benefit from expansive statutes that allow an entire firm to be held liable for a crime by a single employee. But when prosecutors target the Goliaths of the corporate world, they find themselves at a huge disadvantage. The government that bailed out corporations considered too economically important to fail also negotiates settlements permitting giant firms to avoid the consequences of criminal convictions. Presenting detailed data from more than a decade of federal cases, Brandon Garrett reveals a pattern of negotiation and settlement in which prosecutors demand admissions of wrongdoing, impose penalties, and require structural reforms. However, those reforms are usually vaguely defined. Many companies pay no criminal fine, and even the biggest blockbuster payments are often greatly reduced. While companies must cooperate in the investigations, high-level employees tend to get off scot-free.
The practical reality is that when prosecutors face Hydra-headed corporate defendants prepared to spend hundreds of millions on lawyers, such agreements may be the only way to get any result at all. Too Big to Jail describes concrete ways to improve corporate law enforcement by insisting on more stringent prosecution agreements, ongoing judicial review, and greater transparency.
The Breakthrough: Human Rights in the 1970s [PDF]
11 August 2015, 16:26
2013 | PDF | 2.6MB
Between the 1960s and the 1980s, the human rights movement achieved unprecedented global prominence. Amnesty International attained striking visibility with its Campaign Against Torture; Soviet dissidents attracted a worldwide audience for their heroism in facing down a totalitarian state; the Helsinki Accords were signed, incorporating a "third basket" of human rights principles; and the Carter administration formally gave the United States a human rights policy.
The Breakthrough is the first collection to examine this decisive era as a whole, tracing key developments in both Western and non-Western engagement with human rights and placing new emphasis on the role of human rights in the international history of the past century. Bringing together original essays from some of the field's leading scholars, this volume not only explores the transnational histories of international and nongovernmental human rights organizations but also analyzes the complex interplay between gender, sociology, and ideology in the making of human rights politics at the local level. Detailed case studies illuminate how a number of local movements—from the 1975 World Congress of Women in East Berlin, to antiapartheid activism in Britain, to protests in Latin America—affected international human rights discourse in the era as well as the ways these moments continue to influence current understanding of human rights history and advocacy. The global south—an area not usually treated as a scene of human rights politics—is also spotlighted in groundbreaking chapters on Biafran, South American, and Indonesian developments. In recovering the remarkable presence of global human rights talk and practice in the 1970s, The Breakthrough brings this pivotal decade to the forefront of contemporary scholarly debate.
Vision and Brain: How We Perceive the World [PDF]
11 August 2015, 16:24
2012 | PDF | 25.63MB
In this accessible and engaging introduction to modern vision science, James Stone uses visual illusions to explore how the brain sees the world. Understanding vision, Stone argues, is not simply a question of knowing which neurons respond to particular visual features, but also requires a computational theory of vision. Stone draws together results from David Marr's computational framework, Barlow's efficient coding hypothesis, Bayesian inference, Shannon's information theory, and signal processing to construct a coherent account of vision that explains not only how the brain is fooled by particular visual illusions, but also why any biological or computer vision system should also be fooled by these illusions.
This short text includes chapters on the eye and its evolution, how and why visual neurons from different species encode the retinal image in the same way, how information theory explains color aftereffects, how different visual cues provide depth information, how the imperfect visual information received by the eye and brain can be rescued by Bayesian inference, how different brain regions process visual information, and the bizarre perceptual consequences that result from damage to these brain regions. The tutorial style emphasizes key conceptual insights, rather than mathematical details, making the book accessible to the nonscientist and suitable for undergraduate or postgraduate study.
Understanding Complexity [TTC Video]
11 August 2015, 14:47
Course No 5181 | AVI, XviD, 753 kbps, 640x480 | MP3, 96 kbps, 2 Ch | 12x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 2.24GB
In fact, complexity science is a discipline that may well hold the key to unlocking the secrets of some of the most important forces on Earth. But it's also a science that remains largely unknown, even among well-educated people. Now you can discover and grasp the fundamentals and applications of this amazing field with Understanding Complexity. Professor Scott E. Page—one of the field's most highly regarded teachers, researchers, and real-world practitioners—introduces you to this vibrant and still evolving discipline. In 12 lucid lectures, you learn how complexity science helps us understand the nature and behavior of systems formed of financial markets, corporations, native cultures, governments, and more.
Recent years have seen the introduction of concepts from the new and exciting field of complexity science that have captivated the attention of economists, sociologists, engineers, business people, and many others.
- tipping points, the sociological term used to describe moments when unique or rare phenomena become more commonplace;
- the wisdom of crowds, the argument that certain types of groups harness information and make decisions in more effective ways than individuals;
- six degrees of separation, the idea that it takes no more than six steps to find some form of connection between two random individuals; and
- emergence, the idea that new properties, processes, and structures can emerge unexpectedly from complex systems.
Interest in these intriguing concepts is widespread because of the utility of this field. Complexity science can shed light on why businesses or economies succeed and fail, how epidemics spread and can be stopped, and what causes ecological systems to rebalance themselves after a disaster.
In fact, complexity science is a discipline that may well hold the key to unlocking the secrets of some of the most important forces on Earth. But it's also a science that remains largely unknown, even among well-educated people.
What Makes a System Complex? What defines a system as complex, as opposed to being merely "complicated"? The answer lies in the presence of four factors:
- A population of diverse agents, all of which are
- Connected, with behaviors and actions that are
- Interdependent, and that exhibit
Understanding Complexity is filled with insights not only into the systems around you, but into yourself as well. For example, you discover how your own consciousness is perhaps the ultimate example of a complex system, as billions of neurons coalesce and communicate to create the mystery of awareness.
Similarly, your own local city is another pointed example of a complex system, with its storefronts, trash collection schedules, police activity, and more that organize themselves into the patterns and rhythms that make life in your particular area entirely different from life in another. Then there are the financial markets, business sectors, global regions, ecological and climatic systems, and more—all complex systems that you work with or are affected by daily.
Understanding these and other complex systems is important for several reasons:
- They're often unpredictable.
- They sometimes produce events with global ramifications.
- They're remarkably robust and can withstand substantial trauma and variation.
Most important, however, are the stakes, which, in a modern world so interconnected that the links between systems are often invisible, are far different from what they once were. Our social, economic, and political worlds are more complex than they were years ago, and they may become too complex for us to understand unless we develop new ways of seeing and thinking about them.
Discover New Tools for Understanding
While modern decision-making theory has long been the "canonical" tool for guiding choices in the business, government, and nonprofit sectors, complexity science takes it a step further and provides us with a useful model for understanding and determining what to do in these complex systems. Understanding Complexity shows you how the ideas and tools made possible by complexity science—such as agent-based computer modeling, which builds a complex system for individual agents—can effectively take on those problems that decision-making theory cannot.
In one of the many illuminating examples Professor Page uses throughout the course, he reveals how such a model showed architects how a change in the shape of a ballroom with its doors on two opposite walls—from a square to a long rectangle with the doors on two opposite walls—made it much less likely that people fleeing a fire would jam the doorways. The narrower shape encouraged people to approach the doors straight-on instead of at a sharp angle.
Learn a New Way to See the World
Professor Page maintains an active involvement with the Santa Fe Institute, the interdisciplinary think tank recognized as the nerve center of complexity theory research, and his depth of knowledge in, and passion for, complexity science shines through in each of these 12 lectures.
Designed to be both a comprehensive and accessible gateway into the world of complexity science, the course features nearly 40 two- and three-dimensional computer graphics and a variety of highly illustrative thought experiments—to say nothing of the teaching skills that have earned Professor Page several awards and a career as a national speaker.
By the conclusion of Understanding Complexity, you'll have attained a new lens through which to better view, understand, and make sense of your world. While the systems you explore in this course will continue to remain complex, the science behind them will attain a startling new level of clarity.
- Complexity—What Is It? Why Does It Matter?
- Simple, Rugged, and Dancing Landscapes
- The Interesting In-Between
- Why Different Is More
- Explore Exploit—The Fundamental Trade-Off
- Emergence I—Why More Is Different
- Emergence II—Network Structure and Function
- Agent-Based Modeling—The New Tool
- Feedbacks—Beehives, QWERTY, the Big Sort
- The Sand Pile—Self-Organized Criticality
- Complexity versus Uncertainty
- Harnessing Complexity
Ancient Empires before Alexander [TTC Video]
11 August 2015, 14:42
Course No 3150 | AVI, XviD, 722 kbps, 640x480 | MP3, 96 kbps, 2 Ch | 36x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 6.7GB
Ponder the term "the ancient world" for just a moment. What personalities, images, and events come to mind? For most of us, the legacy of the ancient world is symbolized by the twin pillars of Western civilization: the empires of Greece and Rome. But what about the empires that came before them?
Although realms such as Akkad, Assyria, Babylon, Hatti, and Ur dwell on the fringes of recorded history, they nevertheless represent human civilization's first experiments in empire building. Their intriguing reigns
- gave birth to the political, judicial, religious, and military systems that would influence the administration of subsequent empires;
- steered earlier societies on a course that would eventually lead to our modern world's intricate system of nations, states, and countries; and
- played key roles in episodes in ancient history, such as the Babylonian captivity, the Trojan and Peloponnesian wars, and the eventual rise of the Greek and Roman empires.
The fascinating stories behind these empires are required knowledge for you to develop a full understanding of the ancient world in its entirety.
Ancient Empires before Alexander is your opportunity to finally complete your knowledge of the ancient world with a comprehensive look at history's first empires. Professor Robert L. Dise Jr. of the University of Northern Iowa—an expert on the history of the ancient world—examines these fascinating kingdoms as their own unique subjects, ones that reflect the struggles, successes, and failures of establishing an empire. Over the course of 36 insightful lectures, follow the Egyptians, the Mycenaean Greeks, the Persians, the Carthaginians, and others as they rise to glory, create administrative and military structures, clash with one another, and eventually collapse.
How Do Empires Rise? Why Do They Fall?
Until 200 years ago, these empires were little more than names. Some had even been entirely forgotten. Recently, however, profound advances in archaeology and history have vastly improved our knowledge about the world's first empires—those that provided the foundation for future empires to follow.
As Ancient Empires before Alexander is a course on the rise and fall of history's earliest empires, you spend much of the course immersed in the political, administrative, and military details of these thrilling civilizations. While social and cultural issues are not unimportant to the rise and fall of empires, they often play secondary roles, according to Professor Dise; rather, the aim of his lectures is to place each of these empires within a larger exploration of empire building.
Employing a wealth of archaeological and archival evidence, Professor Dise brings the ancient world's diverse empires to life through an analysis of three basic questions:
- How did this particular empire emerge?
- How was it governed and defended?
- How and why did it ultimately fall?
These three seemingly simple questions, you quickly discover, raise a host of profound issues on the growth, development, and failures of vast imperial systems. Their answers also provide you with invaluable insights into the similarities and differences between the course's rich offering of empires—how one empire's success could be another's undoing, how administrative and imperial practices evolved from one realm to the next, and how the creation of new forms of rule and defense adapted to challenges from both geography and neighboring empires.
Ancient History's Greatest Empires—Revealed!
Throughout Ancient Empires before Alexander, you immerse yourself in the details of the dozen empires that flourished in the 2,000 years before the conquests of Alexander the Great paved the way for the triumphs of the Roman Empire. Grounded in a chronological approach, the lectures begin in ancient Mesopotamia and span the river valleys, deserts, and mountain ranges of the Near East. You encounter these empires and others:
- The Akkadian Empire, the first empire in human history established in the late 3rd millennium B.C. by Sargon the Great. Sargon and his successors pioneered the techniques of imperial rule and set a pattern on which later Mesopotamian empires would emulate and elaborate.
- The Empire of Hatti, which dominated Asia Minor. The emergence of this empire in the early 2nd millennium B.C. presaged the downfall of Mesopotamia's power in the ancient world. Unlike strongly centralized Mesopotamian empires, Hatti—home to the Hittites—was very loosely structured and almost feudal in nature.
- The Persian Empire, which would grow into the largest empire the ancient world had yet seen, stretching from Libya to India. This wealthy empire supported local autonomy within its imperial unity and displayed a tolerance for its bewildering diversity of peoples. Alexander the Great, however, would spell doom for this impressive civilization.
- The Carthaginian Empire, a sea empire (thalassocracy) that consisted of Phoenician settlements along the coast of the western Mediterranean and possessed far-flung trading networks. Carthage would eventually be destroyed by Rome during the Punic Wars of the 3rd century B.C.
In addition, you discover fresh new perspectives on more familiar ancient empires, including Israel, Babylon, and Egypt, as well as the interactions—both friendly and antagonistic—between these and other kingdoms.
These thrilling empires, you learn, owe much to the leaders who ruled them and the warriors who protected them. As you explore each empire, you also meet some of the ancient world's most captivating figures and place their lives and deeds in the context of their respective kingdoms. Throughout the lectures, you come across awe-inspiring individuals such as
- Hammurabi, famed for his code of laws and renowned for being a hands-on administrator of his empire;
- Solomon, who succeeded his father David as king of Israel and centralized royal power;
- Xerxes, who led a massive Persian invasion of the Greek city-states, only to leave the empire weakened and vulnerable to foreign attack; and
- Hannibal, the brilliant Carthaginian general who engineered a series of stunning defeats of the Roman army yet failed to stop Rome's rise to imperial power.
An Invaluable Guide through the Ancient World
You'll find no better guide through the palatial halls, administrative offices, war-torn battlefields, and sacred temples of these diverse empires than Professor Dise. A passionate teacher and military historian who has spent his career immersed in this historical era, he packs each lecture of Ancient Empires before Alexander with a range of rich historical sources on which our current understanding of the ancient Near East rests, including
- more than a million cuneiform tablets from imperial and municipal archives;
- colorful narratives written by Greek, Roman, and Hebrew sources; and
- archaeological remains excavated from once-lost cities and kingdoms.
With Professor Dise, you learn how to comb through these intriguing records, dodging pitfalls of misinterpretation and bias while teaching yourself how to examine historical documents and archaeological findings with a seasoned eye. You'll quickly become a more trained observer of human history and more informed about the ways the past is recorded and passed down to subsequent generations.
Spanning thousands of years of human history and encompassing regions both familiar and forgotten, Ancient Empires before Alexander is a remarkable tour through the unfamiliar reaches of the ancient world. It's an exciting way to explore the legacies of the world's earliest empires and an unforgettable opportunity to complete your grasp of the ancient world—in all its marvelous diversity.
- A Meditation on Empire
- Lands, Seas, and Sources
- Sargon and the Dawn of Empire
- The Third Dynasty of Ur
- The Empire of Hammurabi
- Mitanni and the Kassites
- The Rise of Hatti
- The Government of Hatti
- Hatti at War
- The Climax and Collapse of Hatti
- The Rise of the Egyptian Empire
- The Imperial Army and Administration
- The End of the Egyptian Empire
- The Minoan Thalassocracy
- Mycenae and the Dawn of Greece
- The Collapse of the Mycenaean World
- The Birth of Israel
- The Empire of David and Solomon
- The Dawn of Assyria
- The Rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
- The Government of Assyria
- Assyria at War
- The Climax and Collapse of Assyria
- The Neo-Babylonian Empire
- The Rise of the Persian Empire
- The Outbreak of the Greek Wars
- Xerxes and the Invasion of Greece
- From Plataea to the Peace of Callias
- The Persian Empire from 450 to 334
- The Government and Army of Persia
- Alexander and the Fall of Persia
- The Origins of Carthage and Its Empire
- Ruling and Defending Carthage's Empire
- The First War with Rome
- Hannibal and the Fall of Carthage
- Ancient Empires before Alexander, and After
The Third Plate: Field Notes on the Future of Food [Audiobook]
11 August 2015, 14:25
2014 | MP3@64 kbps + EPUB | 14 hrs 35 mins | 411.44MB
At the heart of today’s optimistic farm-to-table food culture is a dark secret: the local food movement has failed to change how we eat. It has also offered a false promise for the future of food. Our concern over factory farms and chemically grown crops might have sparked a social movement, but chef Dan Barber reveals that even the most enlightened eating of today is ultimately detrimental to the environment and to individual health. And it doesn’t involve truly delicious food. Based on ten years of surveying farming communities around the world, Barber’s The Third Plate offers a radical new way of thinking about food that will heal the land and taste good, too.
The Third Plate is grounded in the history of American cuisine over the last two centuries. Traditionally, we have dined on the “first plate,” a classic meal centered on a large cut of meat with few vegetables. Thankfully, that’s become largely passé. The farm-to-table movement has championed the “second plate,” where the meat is from free-range animals and the vegetables are locally sourced. It’s better-tasting, and better for the planet, but the second plate’s architecture is identical to that of the first. It, too, is damaging—disrupting the ecological balances of the planet, causing soil depletion and nutrient loss—and in the end it isn’t a sustainable way to farm or eat.
The solution, explains Barber, lies in the “third plate”: an integrated system of vegetable, grain, and livestock production that is fully supported—in fact, dictated—by what we choose to cook for dinner. The third plate is where good farming and good food intersect.
While the third plate is a novelty in America, Barber demonstrates that this way of eating is rooted in worldwide tradition. He explores the time-honored farming practices of the southern Spanish dehesa, a region producing high-grade olives, acorns, cork, wool, and the renowned jamón ibérico. Off the Straits of Gibraltar, Barber investigates the future of seafood through a revolutionary aquaculture operation and an ancient tuna-fishing ritual. In upstate New York, Barber learns from a flourishing mixed-crop farm whose innovative organic practices have revived the land and resurrected an industry. And in Washington State he works with cutting-edge seedsmen developing new varieties of grain in collaboration with local bakers, millers, and malt makers. Drawing on the wisdom and experience of chefs and farmers from around the world, Barber builds a dazzling panorama of ethical and flavorful eating destined to refashion Americans’ deepest beliefs about food.
A vivid and profound work that takes readers into the kitchens and fields revolutionizing the way we eat, The Third Plate redefines nutrition, agriculture, and taste for the twenty-first century. The Third Plate charts a bright path forward for eaters and chefs alike, daring everyone to imagine a future for our national cuisine that is as sustainable as it is delicious.
God's Bankers: A History of Money and Power at the Vatican [Audiobook]
11 August 2015, 14:17
2015 | MP3@64 kbps + EPUB | 21 hrs 53 mins | 619.65MB
A deeply reported, fast-paced exposé of the money and the cardinals-turned-financiers at the heart of the Vatican - the world's biggest, most powerful religious institution - from an acclaimed journalist with "exhaustive research techniques" (The New York Times).
From a master chronicler of legal and financial misconduct, a magnificent investigation nine years in the making, this book traces the political intrigue and inner workings of the Catholic Church. Decidedly not about faith, belief in God, or religious doctrine, this audiobook is about the church's accumulation of wealth and its byzantine entanglements with financial markets across the world. Told through 200 years of prelates, bishops, cardinals, and the Popes who oversee it all, Gerald Posner uncovers an eyebrow-raising account of money and power in perhaps the most influential organization in the history of the world.
God's Bankers has it all: a rare exposé and an astounding saga marked by poisoned business titans, murdered prosecutors, mysterious deaths of private investigators, and questionable suicides; a carnival of characters from Popes and cardinals, financiers and mobsters, kings and prime ministers; and a set of moral and political circumstances that clarify not only the church's aims and ambitions, but reflect the larger dilemmas of the world's more recent history. And Posner even looks to the future to surmise if Pope Francis can succeed where all his predecessors failed: to overcome the resistance to change in the Vatican's Machiavellian inner court and to rein in the excesses of its seemingly uncontrollable financial quagmire. Part thriller, part financial tell-all, this book shows with extraordinary precision how the Vatican has evolved from a foundation of faith to a corporation of extreme wealth and power.
Joseph Anton: A Memoir [Audiobook]
11 August 2015, 14:10
2012 | MP3@64 kbps | 26 hrs 59 mins | 764.09MB
On February 14, 1989, Valentine's Day, Salman Rushdie was telephoned by a BBC journalist and told that he had been "sentenced to death" by the Ayatollah Khomeini. For the first time he heard the word fatwa. His crime? To have written a novel called The Satanic Verses, which was accused of being "against Islam, the Prophet and the Quran".
So begins the extraordinary story of how a writer was forced underground, moving from house to house, with the constant presence of an armed police protection team. He was asked to choose an alias that the police could call him by. He thought of writers he loved and combinations of their names; then it came to him: Conrad and Chekhov - Joseph Anton.
How do a writer and his family live with the threat of murder for more than nine years? How does he go on working? How does he fall in and out of love? How does despair shape his thoughts and actions, how and why does he stumble, how does he learn to fight back? In this remarkable memoir Rushdie tells that story for the first time; the story of one of the crucial battles, in our time, for freedom of speech. He talks about the sometimes grim, sometimes comic realities of living with armed policemen, and of the close bonds he formed with his protectors; of his struggle for support and understanding from governments, intelligence chiefs, publishers, journalists, and fellow writers; and of how he regained his freedom.
It is a book of exceptional frankness and honesty, compelling, provocative, moving, and of vital importance. Because what happened to Salman Rushdie was the first act of a drama that is still unfolding somewhere in the world every day.
This audiobook includes a prologue read by the author.
Words Without Music: A Memoir [Audiobook]
11 August 2015, 14:06
2015 | MP3@64 kbps + EPUB | 15 hrs 6 mins | 427.46MB
The long-awaited memoir by "the most prolific and popular of all contemporary composers." (New York Times)
A world-renowned composer of symphonies, operas, and film scores, Philip Glass has, almost single-handedly, crafted the dominant sound of late twentieth-century classical music. Rapturous in its ability to depict the creative process, Words without Music allows listeners to experience that sublime moment of creative fusion when life merges with art. Biography lovers will be inspired by the story of a precocious Baltimore boy who entered college at age fifteen before traveling to Paris to study under the legendary Nadia Boulanger; Glass devotees will be fascinated by the stories behind Einstein on the Beach and Satyagraha, among so many other works. Whether recalling his experiences working at Bethlehem Steel, traveling in India, driving a cab in 1970s New York, or his professional collaborations with the likes of Allen Ginsberg, Ravi Shankar, Robert Wilson, Doris Lessing, and Martin Scorsese, Words without Music affirms the power of music to change the world.
BONUS FEATURE: Includes "Etude No. 2," written and performed by Philip Glass.
Robert Altman: The Oral Biography [Audiobook]
11 August 2015, 13:56
2009 | MP3@56 kbps + EPUB | 18 hrs 6 mins | 448.19MB
Robert Altman - visionary director, hard-partying hedonist, eccentric family man, Hollywood legend - comes roaring to life in this rollicking cinematic biography, told in a chorus of voices that can only be called Altmanesque.
His outsized life and unique career are revealed as never before: here are the words of his family and friends, and a few enemies, as well as the agents, writers, crew members, producers, and stars who worked with him, including Meryl Streep, Warren Beatty, Tim Robbins, Julianne Moore, Paul Newman, Julie Christie, Elliott Gould, Martin Scorsese, Robin Williams, Cher, and many others. There is even Altman himself, in the form of his exclusive last interviews.
After an all-American boyhood in Kansas City, a stint flying bombers through enemy fire in World War II, and jobs ranging from dog-tattoo entrepreneur to television director, Robert Altman burst onto the scene in 1970 with the movie M*A*S*H. He revolutionized American filmmaking, and, in a decade, produced masterpieces at an astonishing pace: McCabe & Mrs. Miller, Thieves Like Us, The Long Goodbye, 3 Women, and, of course, Nashville. Then, after a period of disillusionment with Hollywood - as well as Hollywood's disillusionment with him - he reinvented himself with a bold new set of masterworks: The Player, Short Cuts, and Gosford Park. Finally, just before the release of the last of his nearly 40 movies, A Prairie Home Companion, he received an honorary Oscar for lifetime achievement from the Academy, which had snubbed him for so many years.
Mitchell Zuckoff - who was working with Altman on his memoirs before he died - weaves Altman's final interviews, an incredible cast of voices, and contemporary reviews and news accounts, into a riveting tale of an extraordinary life. Here are a series of revelations that force us to reevaluate Altman as a man and an artist.