Language Families of the World [TTC Video]
11 May 2019, 21:25
Course No 2235 | MP4, AVC, 1372 kbps, 960x540 | AAC, 126 kbps, 2 Ch | 34x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 10.14GB
Language, in its seemingly infinite variety, tells us who we are and where we come from. Many linguists believe that all of the world’s languages—over 7,000 currently—emerged from a single, prehistoric source. While experts have not yet been able to reproduce this proto-language, most of the world’s current languages can be traced to various language families that have branched and divided, spreading across the globe with migrating humans and evolving over time.
In Language Families of the World, Professor John McWhorter of Columbia University takes you back through time and around the world, following the linguistic trails left by generations of humans that lead back to the beginnings of language. Utilizing historical theories and cutting-edge research, these 34 astonishing lectures will introduce you to the major language families of the world and their many offspring, including a variety of languages that are no longer spoken but provide vital links between past and present.
An Incomplete Family Tree
The English language comes from the immense family known as Indo-European, a group that has been traced and reconstructed perhaps most thoroughly of all the language families. In fact, it is the extensive study of this family that essentially built the foundations of formal linguistic science. Other language families, like the Niger-Congo, the Afro-Asiatic, and Austronesian families, are becoming more and more known through study, but there is still a long way to go to uncover the earliest foundations of the families that comprise the thousands of languages spoken around the world today.
Professor McWhorter demonstrates how, through a combination of the known and the unknown, of tangible evidence and shifting hypotheses, linguists trace and reconstruct languages. It’s often a tangled and complex undertaking, with many theories taking root before being reevaluated—or disproven altogether. As you better understand the methods linguists use and the ideas they have developed, you will explore a host of fascinating questions, including:
- How are similarities in languages determined?
- Why do some languages seem related but are not, while others that appear fundamentally different are actually part of the same family?
- What is the effect of geography—and even topography—on language?
- Who determines the difference between a language and a dialect?
- When does a language “officially” split into separate ones?
Filling in the Blanks of Language
As in life, the one constant in language is change. Even looking back just some hundreds of years, what we know as Middle English is barely intelligible to contemporary English speakers. Thanks to many similarities and the volume of writing that exists between the days of Chaucer’s English and now, the transition can be fairly easy to trace. However, since not every language has a clear, uninterrupted line of progression or a written record to follow through the ages, how do linguists reconstruct older languages? How do they identify a language family?
As Professor McWhorter explains: “The fundamental trait of a language family is that linguists can posit a proto-language from which the modern languages developed via regular sound changes.” This is easiest to do with groups of languages that are relatively new and thus still share a lot of features. Professor McWhorter uses the languages of Polynesia to illustrate this kind of reconstruction in its simplest form before turning to the more complicated ways linguists fill in the blanks with languages that have changed over longer periods and spread over vast distances.
Sometimes, as with the Indo-European family, there are copious written records to help cover the gaps, but often it is a matter of using core words and cognates to make the necessary connections. Like detectives, linguists must follow the clues they are given and throughout these lectures you will be able to follow the process like Watson to Professor McWhorter’s Sherlock Holmes. Along the way, you will look at language through many linguistic lenses, such as:
- Structure and parts of words, like roots, stems, prefixes, and suffixes (morphology);
- How sounds are organized in language (phonology);
- The history and origin of particular words (etymology);
- Word order and arrangement (syntax);
- The meaning and implications of words (semantics), and many more.
If language change makes it so difficult for linguists to make clear connections between past and present, it is important to understand the nature of those changes, as well as how those changes both help and hinder investigation. Languages experience change for many reasons, including:
- Time. Every generation alters the language(s) they inherit, through both the addition of new words and structures and the gradual erosion and extinction of others as cultures and societies change.
- Distance. The farther away groups of speakers become, the more linguistic changes crop up between their “versions” of the language. Sometimes this results in dialects, other times in completely new languages.
- Contact. Two unrelated languages thrown into proximity will sometimes create a mix of the two and can evolve into a new language altogether, or the influence of a dominant language can create a linguistic area with many shared characteristics among several languages.
- Force. Sometimes—often as the result of war, colonialism, or invasion—languages can be forced to change to fit a new reality or go extinct altogether.
Languages Past, Present, and Future
Languages like Chinese, Spanish, English, Arabic, Hindi, and Russian are some of the most widely spoken in the world and have been extensively studied. They can all provide deep insight into the nature of language and how it can change over time. Yet they are only a very small fraction of the immense number of languages and dialects you will encounter as you tour the world via linguistics. Following the trails of language across land and sea with Professor McWhorter will allow you to trace migration patterns and social contact between different peoples, as well as better understand important aspects of history and geography that continue to evolve and influence the world we live in today.
Utilizing maps, graphics, photographs, and a plethora of written examples and illustrations, Language Families of the World makes the complex and ever-changing world of language an engaging journey. From the “click” languages of sub-Saharan Africa and the little-known languages of New Guinea to the shrinking varieties of Native American grammar and the isolated Basque tongue in the heart of Europe, you will encounter an astonishing range of languages. Through them, you will reveal amazing facets of speech that defy conventional wisdom and demonstrate the immense range of human linguistic ingenuity.
While most animals communicate in some form, language—complete with grammar, syntax, dialects, vocabulary, and so much more—appears to be a uniquely human trait. When we understand not just the nuts and bolts but the extensive history and cultural power of language, we better understand ourselves, as well as the world and the people we share it with.
Hacking Darwin: Genetic Engineering and the Future of Humanity [EPUB]
11 May 2019, 21:24
2019 | EPUB | 2.15MB
Passionate, provocative, and highly illuminating, Hacking Darwin is the must read book about the future of our species for fans of Homo Deus and The Gene.
After 3.8 billion years humankind is about to start evolving by new rules...
From leading geopolitical expert and technology futurist Jamie Metzl comes a groundbreaking exploration of the many ways genetic-engineering is shaking the core foundations of our lives ― sex, war, love, and death.
At the dawn of the genetics revolution, our DNA is becoming as readable, writable, and hackable as our information technology. But as humanity starts retooling our own genetic code, the choices we make today will be the difference between realizing breathtaking advances in human well-being and descending into a dangerous and potentially deadly genetic arms race.
Enter the laboratories where scientists are turning science fiction into reality. Look towards a future where our deepest beliefs, morals, religions, and politics are challenged like never before and the very essence of what it means to be human is at play. When we can engineer our future children, massively extend our lifespans, build life from scratch, and recreate the plant and animal world, should we?
Handguns for Self-Defense: A Guide to Choosing and Using Your Weapon [EPUB]
11 May 2019, 07:22
2019 | EPUB | 11.26MB
Regardless of your level of training or comfort around firearms, understanding and applying firearm fundamentals will increase your proficiency. Handguns for Self-Defense provides easily understood explanations of what shooters need to do to fire more accurately.
Author David Nash has more thann twenty years of experience as a firearm instructor and in this book he explores such topics as:
- How to choose the firearm, holster, and carry method that best fits you, your lifestyle, and your particular protection needs
- Understanding state and federal firearm laws
- Developing and implementing a safe and effective firearms training regime
- How to deal with friends and family who don't like guns
- And much more
All of this is done without politics, judgments, or complex explanations. Handguns for Self-Defense is a valuable resource for anyone thinking about purchasing a firearm for the first time, exploring carrying a gun for self-defense, or seeking to improve the skills they already have.
How to Camp in the Woods [EPUB]
11 May 2019, 07:20
2019 | EPUB | 27.99MB
Perfect for everyone from novices to boondockers, How to Camp in the Woods compiles contemporary and classic wisdom, practical tips, and illustrated DIY advice on every aspect of equipping, packing, setting up camp, cooking, and improvising no matter where you are in the great outdoors.
If you want to immerse yourself or your family in the natural world but still be warm, dry, and comfortable, How to Camp In the Woods is for you.
How to Camp in the Woods will teach readers:
- Camping and survival basics including fire building, essential knots, site finding, wilderness first aid/CPR, map/compass reading, and camping off the grid.
- Essential gear, packing light, recommendations for DIY if you've left something behind, and how to keep everything relatively clean.
- Guides to camping comfortably in all seasons and weather, as well as tips and etiquette for camping around the world, including with pets and kids.
- Tips for enhancing the experience, including recipes for easy and inexpensive meals from 25 base ingredients, stargazing essentials, fireside games and songs, bird-watching, and the perfect campfire reading list.
Nightside of the Runes: Uthark, Adulruna, and the Gothic Cabbala [EPUB]
11 May 2019, 07:18
2019 | EPUB | 9.22MB
Reveals the occult wisdom and multidimensional layers of meaning hidden in the Nordic Rune stones
- Explores the practice of the Uthark divination system encoded within the traditional exoteric Futhark system of reading the runes
- Traces the relationship between the rune stones and numerology, the Cabbala, alchemy, Gothicism, and sigil magic
- Examines the history of the runes and the ancient spiritual mysticism of Odin
Uncovering the dark side of the Nordic rune stones hidden beneath their traditional interpretation, Swedish scholar and runologist Thomas Karlsson examines the rune work of Swedish mystic and runologist Johannes Bureus (1568-1652) and professor Sigurd Agrell (1881-1937), both of whom devoted their lives to uncovering the secret uses of rune stones concealed from all but the highest initiates.
Karlsson begins by examining the Uthark system of divination—the Left Hand Path of the runes—that lies hidden under the traditional Futhark system. According to the lore of Uthark, a cryptographic ruse was used to make it impossible for the uninitiated to know the true order of the runes. Exploring Agrell's decryption of the Uthark system, Karlsson reveals similarities between the numerology of ancient mystery cults and the Runic tradition. He explains the multidimensional meaning of each rune from the Uthark perspective, their relationships with the nine worlds of Norse cosmogony, and the magical powers of rune-rows and the three aettir rune groupings. He details how to create your own magically-charged runes, direct and activate the force of the runes, and use them for rune meditation, divination, sigil magic, galders (power songs), and rune yoga.
Karlsson also examines the secret dimensions of the 15 "noble" runes, the Adulrunes, based on the theories of Johannes Bureus. Using his knowledge of the Cabbala and alchemy, Bureus created magical symbols with the Adulrunes as well as one symbol containing all 15 Adulrunes, which Bureus called the "Adulruna." Karlsson explains Bureus' spiritual system of initiation, the Gothic Cabbala, revealing the connections between old Norse wisdom and the Cabbala. He explores Bureus' Adulrune practices and explains how Bureus outlined seven levels of meaning for each rune, with those initiated into the highest rune levels able to conjure spirits and raise the dead.
Covering more than just rune practices, Karlsson's exploration of the dark or night side of the runes provides a comprehensive guide to Norse spirituality and the ancient spiritual mysticism of Odin.
Red Hot and Blue: Fifty Years of Writing About Music, Memphis, and Motherf**kers [EPUB]
11 May 2019, 07:17
2019 | EPUB | 2.19MB
This collection of over fifty years of writing about the South and its music by Stanley Booth, one of the undisputedly great chroniclers of the subject, is a classic, essential read. Booth's close contacts with many of the musicians he writes about provide a gateway to truly understanding the music and culture of Memphis and other blues strongholds in the South. Subjects include Elvis Presley, Otis Redding, William Eggleston, Ma Rainey, Blind Willie McTell, Graceland, Beale Street and much more.
A Short History of Seafaring [PDF]
11 May 2019, 07:16
2019 | PDF | 236.3MB
For more than 5,000 years, the sea has challenged, rewarded, and punished the brave sailors who set forth to explore it.
This history of the sea and sailing tells the remarkable story of those individuals—whether they lived to tell the tale themselves or not.
From the early Polynesian seafarers and the first full circumnavigations of the globe, to explorers picking their way through the coral reefs of the West Indies, this book tells the compelling story of life at sea that lies behind man's search for new lands, new trade, conquest, and uncharted waters.
The great milestones of nautical history from the discovery of America to the establishment of the Royal Navy, the naval history of the Civil War, the Battle of Midway and modern piracy are all charted and set in their cultural and historical context.
A Short History of Seafaring is a unique compendium of awe-inspiring tales of epic sea voyages that always involve great feats of seamanship, navigation, endurance, and ingenuity.
A Short History of the Railroad [PDF]
11 May 2019, 07:15
2019 | PDF | 349.87MB
A fascinating journey through the history of the railroad, packed with first-hand accounts of innovation, triumph, and tragedy.
From the earliest steam engine to the high-speed bullet trains of today, A Short History of the Railroad reveals the hidden stories of railway history across the world - the inspired engineering; the blood, sweat, and tears that went into the construction of the tracks; the ground-breaking innovations behind the trains that traveled along them; and the triumphs and tragedies of the people who made the railway what it is.
Chart the history of the Trans-Siberian railway, the Orient Express, and Maglev trains and the impact of world events on the development of trains and the railway. Explore the pioneering railway lines that crossed continents, the key trains of each era, and the locomotives that changed the world. A riveting narrative packed with photographs, diagrams, and maps to illustrate and illuminate, this is the biography of the machines that carried us into the modern era.
Infinity in the Palm of Your Hand: Fifty Wonders That Reveal an Extraordinary Universe [Audiobook]
11 May 2019, 07:14
2018 | MP3@64 kbps + EPUB | 5h 24m | 148.66/1.51MB
Contains an exclusive Q&A with the author, Marcus Chown.
Best-selling author Marcus Chown explores some of the most profound and important science about us, our world and beyond by examining some astonishing facts that reveal the vast complexities of the universe.
There is much about our world that seems to make perfect sense, and important scientific breakthroughs have helped us understand ourselves, our planet and our place in the universe in fascinating detail. But our adventures in space, our deepening understanding of the quantum world and huge leaps in technology over the last century have also revealed a universe far stranger than we could ever have imagined.
With brilliant clarity and wit, best-selling author Marcus Chown examines the profound science behind 50 remarkable scientific facts that help explain the vast complexities of our existence. Did you know that you could fit the whole human race in the volume of a sugar cube? Or that the electrical energy in a single mosquito is enough to cause a global mass extinction? Or that, out there in the cosmos, there are an infinite number of copies of you reading an infinite number of copies of this?
Infinity in the Palm of Your Hand is a mind-bending journey through some of the most weird and wonderful facts about our universe, vividly illuminating the hidden truths that govern our everyday lives.
Moon: An Illustrated History: From Ancient Myths to the Colonies of Tomorrow [EPUB]
11 May 2019, 07:13
2019 | EPUB | 25.31MB
From the moon’s formation, to its potential for future exploration, this richly illustrated volume presents 100 milestones in lunar history.
With dazzling images on every spread, and illuminating text by astrobiologist Dr. David Warmflash, Moon: An Illustrated History chronologically presents 100 milestones in the Moon’s development and exploration. Starting 4.5 billion years ago when the Moon formed, this stunning volume moves from the hypotheses of the Moon’s formation (4.5 billion years ago) to sixth-century BCE predictions of solar eclipses, from the twentieth-century Space Race between the US and the Soviet Union to private space companies and possible future lunar colonies. Find out about lunar calendar systems and cults in the Bible; how lunar brightness was used to estimate stellar distances; how advancing telescopes in the seventeenth century allowed us to eye the Moon more closely; how author Jules Verne inspired the Father of Astronautics; the originals of the Saturn V Moon Rocket; the Apollo missions, and so much more.
Good Housekeeping Simple Organizing Wisdom: 500+ Quick & Easy Clutter Cures [EPUB]
11 May 2019, 07:12
2019 | EPUB | 44.86MB
The ultimate guide to decluttering! Good Housekeeping helps you organize your home, simplify any task, and tidy up fast.
Let the experts at Good Housekeeping help you get organized with this inspirational room-by-room guide to tidying up! Hundreds of tips and tricks include how to keep a well-ordered fridge, gain extra counter space, conquer cookware clutter, choose the best shelving, clear up your desk and digital spaces, and streamline your closet and garage. You’ll find pro organizer ideas for every area in your home, must-have Good Housekeeping Institute-approved products, and advice on finding a place for everything and putting everything in its place. Keep this book handy, refer to it often, and say goodbye to the mess!
Fresh & Pure: Organically Crafted Beauty Balms & Cleansers [EPUB]
11 May 2019, 03:01
2018 | EPUB | 60.21MB
AN ALL-NATURAL PRESCRIPTION FOR RADIANT BEAUTY
75 simple recipes for natural homemade beauty products from the best-selling author of Zen and Tonic
Tired of wondering exactly what went into her beauty products, holistic health and wellness coach Jules Aron decided to make her own. Whipping up a luxurious face mask using little more than honey, apricots, and coconut oil, and an acne-fighting toner with cooling cucumber and antioxidant-rich green tea, she knew without a doubt that no preservatives or toxic chemicals were used.
In Fresh & Pure, Aron explains how to use fruit, flowers, herbs, and minerals to craft healthy beauty products that promote radiant skin, strong nails, and shiny hair. With this helpful guide, readers will be able to pamper themselves from head to toe with aromatic, forward-thinking potions like:
- Papaya Facial Scrub
- Chocolate Lip Butter
- Cucumber + Aloe Cooling Eye Gel
- Shea Butter Beet Lip + Cheek Stain
Zen and Tonic: Savory and Fresh Cocktails for the Enlightened Drinker [EPUB]
11 May 2019, 03:00
2016 | EPUB | 21.2MB
Green drinks gone boozy!
Create your own delicious cocktails using ingredients you can find in your own backyard, windowsill, or local farmer’s market. Learn to make your own simple syrups and infusions with immune boosting fruits, herbs and veggies that will leave you feeling refreshed and energized.
Lavishly illustrated with full-color photographs and offering over 100 fun, simple, and delicious cocktail recipes, Zen and Tonic lets you infuse your life and drinks with healthy, wholesome, revitalizing ingredients.Complete with a thorough introduction to today’s producers of organic and quality spirits, and a spotlight on the wholesome herbs, spices and super foods featured in the recipes, Zen and Tonic, brings a fresh twist to the classic toast: “Let’s drink to your health!”
The Shadow King: The Life and Death of Henry VI [EPUB]
11 May 2019, 02:59
2019 | EPUB | 46.55MB
A thrilling new account of the tragic story and troubled times of Henry VI, who inherited the crowns of both England and France and lost both.
Firstborn son of a warrior father who defeated the French at Agin- court, Henry VI of the House of Lancaster inherited the crown not only of England but also of France, at a time when Plantagenet dominance over the Valois dynasty was at its glorious height.
And yet, by the time he died in the Tower of London in 1471, France was lost, his throne had been seized by his rival, Edward IV of the House of York, and his kingdom had descended into the violent chaos of the Wars of the Roses.
Henry VI is perhaps the most troubled of English monarchs, a pious, gentle, well-intentioned man who was plagued by bouts of mental illness. In The Shadow King, Lauren Johnson tells his remark- able and sometimes shocking story in a fast-paced and colorful narrative that captures both the poignancy of Henry’s life and the tumultuous and bloody nature of the times in which he lived.
Resumes For Dummies, 8th Edition [EPUB]
11 May 2019, 02:58
2019 | EPUB | 38.34MB
Polish up that old resume—and land your dream job
We've all been there: it's time to apply for a job or internship and you have to create or revise your resume. Many questions pop in your head. What do employers want? What skills should I highlight? How do I format this? How do I get noticed? But resume writing doesn't have to be a daunting task.
The latest edition of Resumes For Dummies answers all of these questions and more—whether you're a resume rookie, looking for new tips, or want to create that eye-catching winning resume. In this trusted guide, Laura DeCarlo decodes the modern culture of resume writing and offers you insider tips on all the best practices that’ll make your skills shine and your resume pop. Let's start writing!
- Write effective resumes that will stand out in a crowd
- Understand Applicant Tracking Systems and how to adapt your resume
- Keep your resume up with the current culture
- Position a layoff or other career change and challenge with a positive spin
- Leverage tips and tricks that give your resume visual power
In order to put your best foot forward and stand out in a pile of papers, it’s important to have an excellent and effective resume—and now you can.
The Forge of Christendom: The End of Days and the Epic Rise of the West [Audiobook]
11 May 2019, 02:57
20189 | MP3@64 kbps + EPUB | 15h 57m | 438.73/10.4MB
At the approach of the first millennium, the Christians of Europe did not seem likely candidates for future greatness. Weak, fractured, and hemmed in by hostile nations, they saw no future beyond the widely anticipated Second Coming of Christ.
But when the world did not end, the peoples of Western Europe suddenly found themselves with no choice but to begin the heroic task of building a Jerusalem on Earth.
In The Forge of Christendom, Tom Holland masterfully describes this remarkable new age, a time of caliphs and Viking sea kings, the spread of castles, and the invention of knighthood. It was one of the most significant departure points in history: the emergence of Western Europe as a distinctive and expansionist power.
The Complete Herbal Tutor: The Definitive Guide to the Principles and Practices of Herbal Medicine [EPUB]
11 May 2019, 02:55
2019 | EPUB | 81.69MB
Herbal medicines have been used for many centuries to treat illnesses and restore health, and today herbalism still remains the most widely-practiced form of medicine around the world.
Written by a leading medical herbalist, The Complete Herbal Tutor provides in-depth knowledge of the practice and theory of herbal medicine, including everything you need to know about its history, how it works, how to grow, gather and prepare herbs, and how to use them to create an herbal prescription.
The rigorously researched and illustrated materia medica contains over 150 herbs, with clear explanations of their properties, active ingredients, and the latest scientific developments on their uses.
There is also a clear explanation of how herbs can be used to treat each of the body's systems, with advice on using remedies for healing a range of specific conditions.
The Complete Guide to German Armored Vehicles [EPUB]
11 May 2019, 02:54
2019 | EPUB | 119.84MB
The market’s most comprehensive guide to German combat vehicles.
The Complete Guide to German Armored Vehicles is an encyclopedia of all the armored vehicles used by the Nazis in World War II. At over four hundred pages and with over six hundred photos, many of which never before seen by the public, this volume becomes the market’s most comprehensive on the subject.
David Doyle, award-winning author of dozens of books on the subject, provides mechanical information, photos, and usage history for:
- Armored cars
- Assault guns
- Self-propelled guns, howitzers, and mortars
- Recovery vehicles
- Armored Engineer vehicles
An encyclopedic resource by an authority on the subject, The Complete Guide to Armored Vehicles is a must-have for modelers, gamers, and WWII buffs alike.