Medieval Costume in England and France The 13-15th Centuries

Medieval Costume in England and France The 13-15th Centuries

Medieval Costume in England and France: The 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries by Mary G Houston
Dover | 1996 | ISBN: 0486290603 | PDF | 8.82MB


Carefully researched, meticulously detailed account of the style and construction of period costumes. Includes descriptions and illustrations of royal apparel, elaborate ecclesiastical dress and vestments, academic and legal garments, and civilian dress of all classes. Also discusses jewelry, armor, textiles, embroidery and hairdressing.


Fashion in Medieval France

Fashion in Medieval France

Fashion in Medieval France by Sarah-Grace Heller
DS Brewer | 2007 | ISBN: 184384110X | PDF | 2.64MB


How are we to distinguish between a culture organized around fashion, and one where the desire for novel adornment is latent, intermittent, or prohibited? How do fashion systems organize social hierarchies, individual psychology, creativity, and production? Medieval French culture offers a case study of "systematic fashion", demonstrating desire for novelty, rejection of the old in favor of the new, and criticism of outrageous display.


Texts from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries describe how cleverly-cut garments or unique possessions make a character distinctive, and even offer advice on how to look attractive on a budget or gain enough spending money to shop for oneself. Such descriptions suggest fashion's presence, yet accepted notions date the birth of Western fashion to the mid-fourteenth-century revolution in men's clothing styles.


A fashion system must have been present prior to this 'revolution' in styles to facilitate such changes, and abundant evidence for the existence of such a system is cogently set out in this study. Ultimately, fashion is a conceptual system expressed by words evaluating a style's ephemeral worth, and changes in visual details are symptomatic, rather than determinative.


Gold and Gilt, Pots and Pins

Gold and Gilt, Pots and Pins

Gold and Gilt, Pots and Pins: Possessions and People in Medieval Britain by David A Hinton
Oxford University Press | 2006 | ISBN: 0199264546 | PDF | 8.4MB


In this highly illustrated book, David Hinton looks at what possessions meant to people at every level of society in Britain in the middle ages, from elaborate gold jewellery to clay pots, and provides a fascinating window into the society of the middle ages. Gold and Gilt, Pots and Pins is about things worn and used in Britain throughout the Middle Ages, from the great treasure hoards that mark the end of the Roman Empire to the new expressions of ideas promoted by the Renaissance and Reformation.


Worlds of Arthur: Facts and Fictions of the Dark Ages

Worlds of Arthur: Facts and Fictions of the Dark Ages

Worlds of Arthur: Facts and Fictions of the Dark Ages by Guy Halsall
Oxford University Press | 2013 | ISBN: 019965817X | PDF |


King Arthur is probably the most famous and certainly the most legendary medieval king. From the early ninth century through the middle ages, to the Arthurian romances of Victorian times, the tales of this legendary figure have blossomed and multiplied. And in more recent times, there has been a continuous stream of books claiming to unlock the secret or the truth behind the "once and future king."


The truth, as Guy Halsall reveals in this fascinating investigation, is both radically different--and also a good deal more intriguing. Broadly speaking, there are two Arthurs. On the one hand is the traditional "historical" Arthur, waging a doomed struggle to save Roman civilization against the relentless Anglo-Saxon tide during the darkest years of the Dark Ages. On the other is the Arthur of myth and legend, accompanied by a host of equally legendary people, places, and stories: Lancelot, Guinevere, Galahad and Gawain, Merlin, Excalibur, the Lady in the Lake, the Sword in the Stone, Camelot, and the Round Table.


The big problem with all this, notes Halsall, is that "King Arthur" might well never have existed. And if he did exist, it is next to impossible to say anything at all about him. As this challenging new look at the Arthur legend makes clear, all books claiming to reveal "the truth" behind King Arthur can safely be ignored. Not only the fanciful pseudo-historical accounts--Merlin the Magician, the Lady in the Lake--but even the "historical" Arthur is largely a figment of the imagination. The evidence that we have, whether written or archeological, is simply incapable of telling us anything detailed about the Britain in which he is supposed to have lived, fought, and died.


The Little Book of Family History

The Little Book of Family History

The Little Book of Family History by Chris Mason
Green Umbrella | 2009 | ISBN: 1906635897 | EPUB | 3.12MB


Discover Your Family History is written by genealogy enthusiast Chris Mason.


A fantastic guide to researching your own family history, this book gives you hints and tips including useful website references and other useful addresses.


Written from a practical viewpoint it is packed full with examples of certificates, census material and illustrated with real-life examples.


This book will inspire anyone with an interest in family history.


History Lover's Cookbook

History Lover's Cookbook

History Lover's Cookbook by Roxe Anne Peacock
Amazon Digital Services | 2013 | ASIN: B00AZMT61M | AZW3 | 6.32MB


Over 150 full-color photos inspired by nineteenth century recipes, anecdotes, and the Civil War.


History Lover’s Cookbook will transport readers through the Battle of First Bull Run/Manassas to April 9, 1865, where General Robert E. Lee stood under an apple tree to dispatch his surrender to General Grant. Do you know what he was eating when he surrendered?


Prepare a picnic of lemonade, raspberry shrub, mint julep, fried chicken, ham sandwiches, potato salad with boiled dressing, cold slaw, soda biscuits and quince marmalade to observe one of the many Civil War re-enactments throughout the United States.


Enjoy eating tea cakes while viewing more than 150 full-color photos of replica Civil War items, re-enactors portraying Abraham Lincoln, Generals Custer, Lee and Grant, foods and recipes inspired by the nineteenth century.


Share in the Union’s Thanksgiving holiday by preparing recipes from the chapter, Siege at Petersburg.


Find out what General Grant ate every morning with his breakfast.


Roxe Anne Peacock brings the nineteenth century and Civil War era to life through the wonderful photography depicted throughout the book.


The Big Con: Crackpot Economics and the Fleecing of America

The Big Con: Crackpot Economics and the Fleecing of America

The Big Con: Crackpot Economics and the Fleecing of America by Jonathan Chait
Mariner Books | 2008 | ISBN: 0547085702 | EPUB | 257.83KB


American politics has been hijacked. Over the past three decades, a fringe group of economic hucksters has corrupted and perverted our nation’s policies. With dark, engaging wit, Jonathan Chait reveals how these canny zealots first took over the Republican Party and then gamed the political system and the media so that once unthinkable policies - without a shred of academic, expert, or even popular support - now drive the political agenda, regardless of which party is in power.


Why have these ideas succeeded in Washington? How did a clique of extremists gain control of American economic policy and sell short the country’s future? And why do their outlandish ideas still determine policy despite repeated electoral setbacks? Chait tells the outrageous and eye-opening story, expertly explaining just how politics and economics work in Washington. He has produced a riveting drama of greed and deceit that should be read by every concerned citizen, especially in an election year.


Before the Storm

Before the Storm

Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus by Rick Perlstein
Nation Books | 2009 | ISBN: 1568584121 | EPUB | 2.85MB


Acclaimed historian Rick Perlstein chronicles the rise of the conservative movement in the liberal 1960s. At the heart of the story is Barry Goldwater, the renegade Republican from Arizona who loathed federal government, despised liberals, and mocked "peaceful coexistence" with the USSR. Perlstein’s narrative shines a light on a whole world of conservatives and their antagonists, including William F. Buckley, Nelson Rockefeller, and Bill Moyers. Vividly written, Before the Storm is an essential book about the 1960s.


The Worldly Philosophers [Audiobook]

The Worldly Philosophers [Audiobook]

The Worldly Philosophers: The Lives, Times And Ideas Of The Great Economic Thinkers [Audiobook] by Robert L Heilbroner
Blackstone Audiobooks | 1992 | ISBN: 0786102934 | MP3@64 kbps | 11 hrs 05 mins | 303.61MB


"Worldly Philosophers" is probably the best, most authoritative title on the development and growth of economic theory. "Worldly Philosophers" is an outgrowth of Heilbroner's 1953 doctoral thesis and with each edition he's further refined and polished it and in the process it has gone on to sell four million copies, making it the second best selling book on the subject of economics. Heilbroner gives a great overview of the economic process in early societies up until the time of Adam Smith and his revolutionary "The Wealth of Nations." Heilbroner carries the reader onwards as successive economists attempt to make sense of the world around them, introducing the reader to the theories of Ricardo, Malthus, Marx, Veblen, and Keynes, among others. Heilbroner charts the expansion of economic theory in a straightforward linear fashion and shows how these varied economists questioned the theories of those before and postulated their own theories based on how they saw the world.


I hadn't expected "Worldly Philosophers" to be such a lively and enjoyable read, which says a lot about Heilbroner's clarity and caliber of writing. It is far more enjoyable than his later "Making of Economic Society," which borrows liberally from this tome. If you are looking for a concise, well written history of economics, you need look no further than here. - By Todd Bartholomew


In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts [Audiobook]

In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts [Audiobook]

In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters with Addiction [Audiobook] by Gabor Mate
Post Hypnotic Press | 2011 | ASIN: B005FOGAA0 | MP3@64 kbps | 15 hrs 46 mins | 435.22MB


In this timely and profoundly original new book, bestselling writer and physician Gabor Maté looks at the epidemic of addictions in our society, tells us why we are so prone to them and what is needed to liberate ourselves from their hold on our emotions and behaviours.


For over seven years Gabor Maté has been the staff physician at the Portland Hotel, a residence and harm reduction facility in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside. His patients are challenged by life-threatening drug addictions, mental illness, Hepatitis C or HIV and, in many cases, all four. But if Dr. Maté’s patients are at the far end of the spectrum, there are many others among us who are also struggling with addictions. Drugs, alcohol, tobacco, work, food, sex, gambling and excessive inappropriate spending: what is amiss with our lives that we seek such self-destructive ways to comfort ourselves? And why is it so difficult to stop these habits, even as they threaten our health, jeopardize our relationships and corrode our lives?


Beginning with a dramatically close view of his drug addicted patients, Dr. Maté looks at his own history of compulsive behaviour. He weaves the stories of real people who have struggled with addiction with the latest research on addiction and the brain. Providing a bold synthesis of clinical experience, insight and cutting edge scientific findings, Dr. Maté sheds light on this most puzzling of human frailties. He proposes a compassionate approach to helping drug addicts and, for the many behaviour addicts among us, to addressing the void addiction is meant to fill.


A Letter from Gabor Maté


I've written In The Realm of Hungry Ghosts because I see addiction as one of the most misunderstood phenomena in our society. People--including many people who should know better, such as doctors and policy makers--believe it to be a matter of individual choice or, at best, a medical disease. It is both simpler and more complex than that.


Addiction, or the capacity to become addicted, is very close to the core of the human experience. That is why almost anything can become addictive, from seemingly healthy activities such as eating or exercising to abusing drugs intended for healing. The issue is not the external target but our internal relationship to it. Addictions, for the most part, develop in a compulsive attempt to ease one’s pain or distress in the world. Given the amount of pain and dissatisfaction that human life engenders, many of us are driven to find solace in external things. The more we suffer, and the earlier in life we suffer, the more we are prone to become addicted.


The inner city drug addicts I work with are amongst the most abused and rejected people amongst us, but instead of compassion our society treats them with contempt. Instead of understanding and acceptance, we give them punishment and moral disapproval. In doing so, we fail to recognize our own deeply rooted problems and thereby forego an opportunity for healing not only for them, the extreme addicts, but also for ourselves as individuals and as a culture.


My book, in short, is an attempt to bring light to core issues shrouded in darkness. The many positive responses I’ve received encourage me to believe that I’ve succeeded in making a contribution toward that goal.


Best wishes,

Gabor Maté


Interview with the Author


Question: The title of your book has its origins in the Buddhist Wheel of Life. In the Hungry Ghost Realm, people feel empty and seek solace from the outside, from sources that can never nourish. In what ways is our culture trapped in this realm? What can society learn from drug addicts who take the feelings of lack that everyone has, to the extreme?


Gabor Maté: Much of our culture and our economy are based on exploiting people’s sense of emptiness and inadequacy, of not being enough as we are. We have the belief that if we do this or acquire that, if we achieve this or attain that, we’ll be satisfied. This sense of lack and this belief feed many addictive behaviors, from shopping to eating to workaholism. In many respects we behave in a driven fashion that differs only in degree from the desperation of the drug addict.


Question: What makes your book so beautiful is its multi-layered, personal approach. You don’t rely solely on your patients’ stories, but also dig into your personal experience with addiction and the relevance of Buddha’s teachings. What were some challenges you faced when writing so frankly about your own addiction and your family?


Gabor Maté: In a sense my personal issues are not personal at all--just human. Once I understand something, I want to share it. There is no shame in having flaws--just challenges to keep learning. Many people have told me how much they have appreciated my being open like that--it helps them be open with themselves.


Question: Your book ends on a positive note, with the idea that brains do have the ability to change and grow in adult life and even to heal themselves. Does this undermine your previous assertion that you don’t expect most of your severely addicted patients to get clean?


Gabor Maté: No, there is no contradiction here. The human brain is exquisitely capable of development, a capacity known as neuroplasticity. But, as with all development, the conditions have to be right. My pessimism about my clients’ future is based not on any limitation of their innate potential, but on their dire social, economic and legal situation and on the essential indifference of policy makers--and of society--to their plight. In short, the resources that could go into rehabilitating people are now sunk, instead, into persecuting them and keeping them marginalized. It’s a failure of insight and of compassion. We are simply not living up to our possibilities as a society.


Never Be Fat Again [Audiobook]

Never Be Fat Again [Audiobook]

Never Be Fat Again: The 6-Week Cellular Solution to Permanently Break the Fat Cycle [Audiobook] by Raymond Francis, Michelle King
Blackstone Audio | 2011 | ISBN: 1455121282 | MP3@96 kbps | 11 hrs 14 mins | 462.47MB


Fight fat at its true source: your cells.


An MIT-trained scientist explains the one secret you need to know to lose weight and keep it off.


Raymond Francis is the scientist people turn to when diets don't work. His groundbreaking approach treats excess weight for what it really is - a disease caused by malfunctioning cells. As Francis explains, many of the foods we eat every day, especially the "health" and "diet" ones we dutifully buy to lose weight, have the opposite effect. Full of hidden toxins and lacking nutrients, they actually poison your cells and alter your weight-control genes, causing your body to put on the pounds. Like he's done for thousands of other people, Raymond Francis can help you turn this fat cycle around and reclaim your waistline - and your health.


His simple yet scientifically supported plan will have you looking and feeling better than you have in years in just six weeks. You'll discover which low-fat and no-fat products actually make you fatter; how one missing nutrient can signal your body to store fat; which food additives are most toxic - and how to spot them on a label; the "Big 4" worst foods to eat - with delicious and nutritious alternatives; and how to sneak more fiber- and nutrient-rich foods into your day. Plus, Francis offers delicious recipes for meals and snacks and week-by-week to-do lists to keep you on track.


Your body already knows how to regulate its weight; you just need to give it a fighting chance. Now you can - for life.


Secrets of Sleep Science: From Dreams to Disorders

Secrets of Sleep Science: From Dreams to Disorders

Secrets of Sleep Science: From Dreams to Disorders [The Great Courses] (TTC Audio) by Professor H Craig Heller
The Teaching Company | 2013 | Course No 1942 | MP3@128 kbps | 12 hrs 15 mins | 672.21MB



For many of us, sleep is one of life’s greatest pleasures. For others, sleep represents a nightly struggle to fall asleep, stay asleep, rest comfortably, and even remain safe until morning. But what is sleep exactly, and why must we do it every night?


Despite the fact that we spend about one-third of our lives in slumber, scientists still aren’t completely certain. Finding the function of sleep is one of the biggest—and most intriguing—challenges facing biologists today.


What is clear: Sleep is as essential to life as food and water. It impacts virtually every aspect of our lives, from our mood to the functioning of our organs, and it contributes to learning and memory, better performance at work, and a more healthy and productive wakeful life overall.


A lack of sleep impairs your cognitive abilities, exacerbates or leads to psychological problems, and leaves you vulnerable to a long list of chronic medical issues. And the consequences of too little sleep extend beyond the personal. From causing auto accidents to factoring into major disasters such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill, sleep deprivation imposes a heavy toll on society.


Clearly, there’s tremendous value in studying sleep that goes far beyond mere fascination. Educating yourself on the subject may, without exaggeration, save your life or the life of someone you love. The frightening reality is that dire consequences can develop after only a few days of inadequate sleep.


Secrets of Sleep Science: From Dreams to Disorders is your opportunity to access groundbreaking research on the complex and enigmatic phenomenon of sleep, straight from a scientist at the forefront of the field. In these 24 engrossing lectures, award-winning Stanford University professor and researcher H. Craig Heller reveals how far neuroscientists and biologists have come on their quest to pinpoint the principal functions of sleep—which remain a matter of intense debate.


Understand Why Sleep Debts Must Be Paid


Early on in this course, you’ll learn that your brain forces you to fall asleep to repay an accumulated sleep deficit—no matter how dangerous the circumstances. You’ll also learn the myriad ways sleep loss is associated with increased risk for serious health problems such as


  • obesity,
  • diabetes,
  • depression, and
  • reduced resistance to infectious disease.

Backed by compelling scientific evidence, Professor Heller illuminates what happens in the sleeping brain all the way down to the cellular and molecular level. You’ll investigate what biological changes may be produced by wakefulness and reversed during sleep, in addition to


  • the catastrophic ways our circadian clocks can fail;
  • coping mechanisms for jet lag, shift work, and insomnia;
  • disorders such as sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and restless leg syndrome;
  • parasomnias such as sleepwalking, night terrors, and sleep-related eating disorder; and
  • how proper “sleep hygiene” can help you improve your own quality of sleep.

You’ll also examine the critical role sleep plays in our capacity to form memories, and you’ll encounter astounding animal research that ranges from studies of aquatic mammals that sleep with half of their brains at a time to the deep sleep of hibernation in squirrels and bears.


Discover the Architecture of Sleep


Widespread interest in sleep goes back to ancient times, yet the study of sleep is relatively new. In fact, the first insights into the physiology of sleep didn’t occur until 1929, when the electroencephalograph was developed to monitor patterns of electrical activity in the brain.


As Professor Heller explains, these EEG recordings allowed scientists to identify REM (rapid eye movement) and non-REM states that are the defining features of sleep. You’ll explore both REM and non-REM sleep in depth, including how they cycle throughout the night.


  • Non-REM sleep EEG recordings show a high-amplitude, slow-wave pattern indicating that large populations of neurons are firing in synchrony.
  • REM sleep, frequently called “dreaming sleep,” creates a low-amplitude, fast pattern similar to a waking EEG.

Then, using basic concepts of electricity, you’ll look at the cellular and molecular mechanisms of falling asleep, the many discrete brain structures involved in the control of sleep and wakefulness, and the homeostatic regulation that matches sleep intensity to need.


You’ll trace how your all-important circadian rhythms emerge shortly after birth but continue to change over the course of your lifetime, and you’ll get an introduction to the neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of sleep, including how medications and other factors influence sleep.


Secrets of Sleep Science also features a thought-provoking lecture on the physiology of what may be the least-understood aspect of sleep: dreaming. Taking into consideration the Freudian and Jungian theories on the topic as well as the latest research, you’ll sift through


  • the possible functions of dreams;
  • the notion that dreams hold meaning;
  • anecdotal evidence suggesting dreams inspire creativity;
  • why you only sometimes remember your dreams; and
  • why dream amnesia may be crucial to maintaining mental health.

Why Sleep Goes Awry


From sleepy sickness to the rare fatal familial insomnia, sleep pathologies and disorders are among the most fascinating—and often heartbreaking—topics you’ll cover in Secrets of Sleep Science. You may find the information on identifying and treating sleep apnea of particular value, as you or your partner may snore and repeatedly struggle to breathe during sleep without even realizing it.


Professor Heller also offers simple behavioral methods to conquer bouts of insomnia and outlines possible treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder, which frequently involves incessant, extreme nightmares that feel all too real.


In the latter half of the course, you’ll get the opportunity to learn about the professor’s own research, which suggests a promising link between sleep-related systems and the cognitive impairment associated with Down syndrome.


A Remarkable Learning Experience


Professor Heller’s first-hand experiments, astute analysis, and obvious passion for the study of sleep make him the ideal guide for this riveting subject. Not only does he elucidate the most up-to-date findings and ideas this field has to offer, but, as a researcher and veteran educator, he possesses the experience and authority to offer his own expert interpretations.


Both seasoned students of biology and those with a casual appreciation for science will find Secrets of Sleep Science filled with astonishing insights. If you’ve ever wondered why we say “sleep like a baby”; why adolescents find it so hard to get up for school; or why your grandfather dozes in his chair during the day but complains of being unable to sleep at night; this is the course for you.

Dr. H. Craig Heller is the Lorry I. Lokey/Business Wire Professor of Biological Sciences and Human Biology at Stanford University. He earned his Ph.D. in Biology from Yale University.


Over the past three to four decades, virtually all biology undergraduates at Stanford have learned physiology from Professor Heller. In recognition of his outstanding performance, he received the Walter J. Gores Award for excellence in teaching and the Kenneth M. Cuthbertson Award for exceptional contributions to Stanford University. The coauthor of more than 200 peer-reviewed research papers, Professor Heller incorporates a wide range of topics into his research, including thermoregulation, hibernation, circadian rhythms, sleep, learning and memory, and human physical performance. His current focus is on the role of sleep and circadian rhythms in learning and memory as applied to the development of therapies for the learning disabilities associated with Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Dr. Heller’s laboratory is also dedicated to developing technologies for the efficient regulation of heat into and out of the body.


Professor Heller is a coauthor of a leading college textbook, Life: The Science of Biology, now in its 10th edition, and the new biology textbook, Principles of Life.


Course Lectures Titles:

01. Sweet Sleep—Essential for a Healthy Life

02. What Is Sleep?

03. Sleep across the Night

04. Sleep across the Lifespan

05. Who in the World Sleeps?

06. The Timing of Sleep

07. The Wheels of the Circadian Clock

08. The Deep Sleep of Hibernators

09. The Neuroanatomy and Neurochemistry of Sleep

10. The Neurophysiology of Sleep

11. Sleep Disorders—Narcolepsy

12. The Strange World of Dreams

13. Functions of Sleep—Fueling the Brain

14. The Timing and Function of REM Sleep

15. Sleep and Learning—Procedural Memory

16. Sleep and Declarative Memory

17. Sleep and Memory in Animals

18. Sleep and Learning Disability

19. When You Cannot Sleep—Insomnia

20. Sleep Apnea

21. Behavior during Sleep—Parasomnias

22. Sleep and the Rest of the Body

23. Improving Sleep

24. Sleep in the Future and the Future of Sleep


Turning Points in Modern History [TTC Audio]

Turning Points in Modern History [TTC Audio]

Turning Points in Modern History [The Great Courses] (TTC Audio) by Professor Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius
The Teaching Company | 2013 | Course No 8032 | MP3@128 kbps | 12 hrs 16 mins | 672.35MB


Get a unique and rewarding view of world history by immersing yourself in the fascinating story of the discoveries, inventions, upheavals, and ideas that shaped the modern world.


What do the fall of Constantinople, the French Revolution, the Transcontinental Railroad, and the invention of the Internet all have in common? If any one of these turning points had not occurred, or had occurred differently, the trajectory of modern history—and even your life—would have been dramatically altered.


Each event and innovation sparked a profound change in how entire societies viewed the world while signaling the dawn of a new political, economic, or cultural and social reality. Being aware of these turning points is critically important—but it's even more essential to comprehend the complexity of their causes and effects if you want to fully grasp how we arrived in the here and now. Only by understanding how these and other landmark moments and movements transformed our world and continue to impact it today, and by studying the creative ways humankind has found to adapt, can we get at the heart of what it truly means to be "modern."


Turning Points in Modern History takes you on a far-reaching journey around the globe—from China to the Americas to New Zealand—to shed light on how two dozen of the top discoveries, inventions, political upheavals, and ideas since 1400 have shaped the modern world. Taught by award-winning history professor Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, these 24 thought-provoking lectures tell the amazing story of how life as we know it developed—at times advancing in one brilliant instant and at other times, in painstaking degrees.


Starting in the early 15th century and culminating in the age of social media, you'll encounter astounding threads that weave through the centuries, joining these turning points in ways that may come as a revelation. You'll also witness turning points with repercussions we can only speculate about because they are still very much in the process of turning.


What It Means to Be Modern


So what is meant by "modern"? As opposed to ancient or premodern, modernity involves a mindset that stresses novelty, breaks with the past, and recognizes change.


In exploring these turning points, you'll see as the attributes of modernity and progress recur again and again, including


  • the growth of technology;
  • the autonomy of the individual;
  • reliance on experimentation and science over the dictates of tradition;
  • new concepts of popular sovereignty and equality; and
  • interconnectedness on an increasingly global scale.

Professor Liulevicius doesn't merely recount the greatest events of history, but rather has carefully selected true catalysts in provoking changes in worldview. Whether you're covering a turning point concerning


  • technological change, like the invention of the airplane, motion pictures, or the atomic bomb;
  • political history, such as the establishment of sovereign nation-states; or
  • social transformation, as in the abolitionist movement or the recognition of women's right to vote,

you'll focus on the impact the event had on its contemporaries and their hopes and fears regarding its effects. And you will see, in spite of the shock of the "new," society's remarkable ability to adapt.


A Unique Understanding of Our Shared Past


Some of the events presented in Turning Points in Modern History, including the discovery of the New World and the fall of the Berlin Wall, will immediately resonate as watershed moments. The global significance of other pivotal events may only become apparent through the professor's guidance, such as the publication of the Enlightenment-era Encyclopédie and the Russo-Japanese War—which has been historically overshadowed by the two world wars that followed.


Whether the events are familiar or surprising, you'll encounter a wealth of eye-opening insights throughout.


  • The voyages of Christopher Columbus: Despite what you may have learned in school, almost no educated European thought the world was flat in Columbus's day.
  • The printing press: Gutenberg's machine played a major role in launching the Protestant Reformation. For centuries, calls for reform within the church were slow to gain acceptance or were ignored. The printing press allowed Martin Luther's message to spread and take hold instead of quickly evaporating.
  • The American Revolution: Even by the time of the Boston Tea Party, few colonists were driving for independence. Most wanted the restoration of their rights as Englishmen.
  • The theory of evolution: Many people actually speculated on evolution before Charles Darwin. After he introduced his ideas, the Nazis and others took the concept in directions he would not have endorsed.

While any one of these or the other turning points featured are fascinating enough to warrant an entire course, this unique format allows parallels and links to be made across centuries and continents. You'll see how the building of the Berlin Wall intersects with the space race; trace how the Anglo-Dutch trade wars led to China's subjugation; and consider whether the Westphalian system of territorial sovereignty established in 1648 still applies in cyberspace as the Internet nullifies borders.


Learn What Might Have Been


As you discover how turning points such as the discovery of penicillin and the opening of East Berlin hinged on chance, accident, and, in some cases, sheer luck, you'll realize how easily history might have played out differently.


  • When Enrico Fermi and colleagues attempted to create a nuclear chain reaction in Chicago, no one knew with certainty it wouldn't run out of control. Had it gone awry, would their protection system—a technician with an axe and workers standing by with buckets of cadmium and salt—have been enough to prevent catastrophe?
  • If an "American missile launch" inadvertently detected by a Soviet satellite hadn't been declared a false alarm by a Russian official, how differently might the cold war have ended?
  • If the voyages of "the Chinese Columbus," Admiral Zheng He, had continued and reached the Americas, would we be speaking Mandarin today?

Having lived, studied, and traveled extensively throughout Europe, Dr. Liulevicius is uniquely qualified to draw unexpected connections between events and figures. In Turning Points in Modern History, you'll experience humanity's last 600 years as a sweeping narrative. By the final lecture, you'll see the big picture come into crystal-clear focus and possess an understanding of where we are, where we've been, and where we're headed like never before.


Dr. Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius is Lindsay Young Professor of History and Director of the Center for the Study of War and Society at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. He earned his B.A. from the University of Chicago and his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. After receiving his doctorate, Dr. Liulevicius served as a postdoctoral research fellow at the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace at Stanford University.


Professor Liulevicius has won many awards and honors, including the University of Tennessee's Excellence in Teaching Award and a National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship. At the university he teaches courses on modern German history, Western civilization, European diplomatic history, Nazi Germany, World War I, war and culture, 20th-century Europe, nationalism, and utopian thought.


Dr. Liulevicius has published numerous articles and two books: War Land on the Eastern Front: Culture, National Identity, and German Occupation in World War I and The German Myth of the East, 1800 to the Present.


Course Lectures Titles:

01. 1433—The Great Voyages of Admiral Zheng He

02. 1453—The Fall of Constantinople

03. 1455—Gutenberg’s Print Revolution

04. 1492—The Columbian Exchange

05. 1600—The British East India Company

06. 1648—The Treaty of Westphalia

07. 1676—Van Leeuwenhoek’s Microscope

08. 1751—Diderot’s Enlightenment Encyclopedia

09. 1787—The American Experiment

10. 1789—The French Revolution

11. 1838—The British Slavery Abolition Act

12. 1839—The Opium War in China

13. 1859—Darwin and the Origin of Species

14. 1869—Binding Continents

15. 1893—First Women Voters in New Zealand

16. 1896—The Invention of Motion Pictures

17. 1903—Kitty Hawk and Powered Flight

18. 1904—The Russo-Japanese War

19. 1928—The Discovery of Penicillin

20. 1942—The Dawn of the Atom

21. 1969—Walking on the Moon

22. 1972—China Enters the World Balance

23. 1989—The Fall of the Berlin Wall


Lords of the Golden Horn [Audiobook]

Lords of the Golden Horn [Audiobook]

Lords of the Golden Horn: From Suleiman the Magnificent to Kamal Ataturk [Audiobook] by Noel Barber
Recorded Books | 1984 | ISBN: 1556903235 | MP3@64 kbps | 8 hrs 54 mins | 244.43MB


The Ottoman Empire was a tremendous influence on many of the things we take for granted in the Western World, bringing with it strange concepts such as hygiene and an appreciation of the finer things in life.


This book gives a well written and entertaining overview of the rulers of this massive empire, from its earliest days to its eventual demise. Along the way we meet many of its rulers and marvel at their cruelty and compassion, great leadership and debauchery. Its a great story, one never dreamt of in fiction, and one well worth reading.


Red Mutiny [Audiobook]

Red Mutiny [Audiobook]
Red Mutiny: Eleven Fateful Days on the Battleship Potemkin [Audiobook] by Neal Bascomb
Recorded Books | 2007 | ISBN: 1428137289 | MP3@64 kbps | 15 hrs 01 min | 410.8MB

In 1905 more than seven hundred Russian sailors mutinied against their officers aboard the battleship Potemkin, one of the most powerful battleships in the world. Led by the charismatic firebrand Matyushenko, they risked their lives to take control of their ship and fly the red flag of revolution. What followed was a violent port-to-port chase that spanned eleven harrowing days and came to symbolize the Russian Revolution itself.


This pulse-pounding story alternates between the opulent court of Nicholas II and the drama on the high seas. Neal Bascomb combines extensive research and fresh information from Soviet archives to tell the true story of the deadliest naval mutiny in history. Red Mutiny is a terrific adventure filled with epic naval battles, heroic sacrifices, treachery, bloodlust, and the rallying cries of freedom.


Hitler's Commanders [Second Edition]

Hitler's Commanders [Second Edition]

Hitler's Commanders: Officers of the Wehrmacht, the Luftwaffe, the Kriegsmarine, and the Waffen-SS by Samuel W Mitcham Jr, Gene Mueller
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers | 2012 | ISBN: 1442211539 | EPUB | 16.32MB


Despite huge odds against them, Hitler’s commanders—the elite of the Wehrmacht—almost succeeded in conquering Europe. Going beyond common stereotypes, Samuel W. Mitcham and Gene Mueller recount the compelling lives of a varied group of army, navy, Luftwaffe, and SS men, including their early life, their military exploits during the war, and their post-war career, if any. Weaving in dramatic stories of tank commanders, fighter pilots in aerial combat, and U-Boat aces, the authors bring the battlefields of World War II to life.


Now in an expanded edition that includes biographies of the generals of Stalingrad and a new chapter on the panzer commanders, this book offers rare insight into the men who ran Nazi Germany’s war machine.


Monte Cassino: Ten Armies in Hell

Monte Cassino: Ten Armies in Hell
Monte Cassino: Ten Armies in Hell by Peter Caddick-Adams
2013 | EPUB + PDF | 17.21/6.10MB

The most horrific battles of World War II ring in the popular memory: Stalingrad, the Bulge, Iwo Jima, to name a few. Monte Cassino should stand among them. Waged deep in the Italian mountains beneath a medieval monastery, it was an astonishingly brutal encounter, grinding up ten armies in conditions as bad as the Eastern Front at its worst.

Now the battle has the chronicle it deserves. In Monte Cassino, military historian Peter Caddick-Adams provides a vivid account of how an array of men from across the globe fought the most lengthy and devastating engagement of the Italian campaign in an ancient monastery town. Not simply Americans, British, and Germans, but Russians, Indians, Georgians, Nepalese, Ukrainians, French, Slovaks, Armenians, New Zealanders, and Poles, among others, fought and died there. Caddick-Adams offers a panoramic view, surveying the strategic heights and peering over the shoulders of troops fruitlessly digging for cover in the stony soil. Here are incisive sketches of the theater commanders--Field Marshal "Smiling Albert" Kesselring, who outmaneuvered Rommel to command German troops in Italy, and the English aristocrat General Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, tall, upbeat, "and--crucially for Churchill--looked every inch a general." Caddick-Adams puts Cassino into the context of the Italian campaign and larger Allied war plans, and takes readers into the savage, often hand-to-hand combat in the bombed-out medieval town. He captures the brutal weather and unforgiving terrain--the rubble and rocky slopes that splintered dangerously under artillery barrages and caused shellfire to echo with such volume that men had trouble keeping their sanity due to acoustics alone. Over four months, the struggle would inflict some 200,000 casualties, and Allied planes would level the historic monastery-and eventually the entire town as well.

With scholarly care, insightful analysis, and narrative verve, Caddick-Adams has crafted a monumental account of one of World War II's lesser-known but no less devastating battles.

Midway: The Battle That Doomed Japan [Audiobook]

Midway: The Battle That Doomed Japan [Audiobook]

Midway: The Battle That Doomed Japan, the Japanese Navy's Story [Audiobook] by Mitsuo Fuchida, Masatake Okumiya
Naval Institute Press | 2004 | ISBN: 1591142938 | MP3 VBR V5 | 7 hrs 47 mins | 165.52MB


This landmark study was first published in English by the Naval Institute in 1955. Widely acknowledged for its valuable Japanese insights into the battle that turned the tide of war in the Pacific, the book has made a great impact on American readers over the years. Two Japanese naval aviators who participated in the operation provide an unsparing analysis of what caused Japan's staggering defeat.


Mitsuo Fuchida, who led the first air strike on Pearl Harbor, commanded the Akagi carrier air group and later made a study of the battle at the Japanese Naval War College. Masatake Okumiya, one of Japan's first dive-bomber pilots, was aboard the light carrier Ryujo and later served as a staff officer in a carrier division. Armed with knowledge of top-secret documents destroyed by the Japanese and access to private papers, they show the operation to be ill-conceived and poorly planned and executed, and fault their flag officers for lacking initiative, leadership, and clear thinking. With an introduction by an author known for his study of the battle from the American perspective, the work continues to make a significant contribution to World War II literature.


With Wings Like Eagles [Audiobook]

With Wings Like Eagles [Audiobook]

With Wings Like Eagles: A History of the Battle of Britain [Audiobook] by Michael Korda
Books on Tape | 2009 | ASIN: B001PCSVMG | MP3 | 9 hrs 50 mins | 134.46MB


Michael Korda's brilliant work of history takes the reader back to the summer of 1940, when fewer than three thousand young fighter pilots of the Royal Air Force—often no more than nine hundred on any given day—stood between Hitler and the victory that seemed almost within his grasp.


Korda re-creates the intensity of combat in "the long, delirious, burning blue" of the sky above southern England, and at the same time—perhaps for the first time—traces the entire complex web of political, diplomatic, scientific, industrial, and human decisions during the 1930s that led inexorably to the world's first, greatest, and most decisive air battle. Korda deftly interweaves the critical strands of the story—the invention of radar (the most important of Britain's military secrets); the developments by such visionary aircraft designers as R. J. Mitchell, Sidney Camm, and Willy Messerschmitt of the revolutionary, all-metal, high-speed monoplane fighters the British Spitfire and Hurricane and the German Bf 109; the rise of the theory of air bombing as the decisive weapon of modern warfare and the prevailing belief that "the bomber will always get through" (in the words of British prime minister Stanley Baldwin). As Nazi Germany rearmed swiftly after 1933, building up its bomber force, only one man, the central figure of Korda's book, Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding, the eccentric, infuriating, obstinate, difficult, and astonishingly foresighted creator and leader of RAF Fighter Command, did not believe that the bomber would always get through and was determined to provide Britain with a weapon few people wanted to believe was needed or even possible. Dowding persevered—despite opposition, shortage of funding, and bureaucratic infighting—to perfect the British fighter force just in time to meet and defeat the German onslaught. Korda brings to life the extraordinary men and women on both sides of the conflict, from such major historical figures as Winston Churchill, Neville Chamberlain, and Reichsmarschall Herman Göring (and his disputatious and bitterly feuding generals) to the British and German pilots, the American airmen who joined the RAF just in time for the Battle of Britain, the young airwomen of the RAF, the ground crews who refueled and rearmed the fighters in the middle of heavy German raids, and such heroic figures as Douglas Bader, Josef František, and the Luftwaffe aces Adolf Galland and his archrival Werner Mölders.


Winston Churchill memorably said about the Battle of Britain, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few." Here is the story of "the few," and how they prevailed against the odds, deprived Hitler of victory, and saved the world during three epic months in 1940.