An Introduction to Infectious Diseases [TTC Video]
06 July 2015, 13:22
Course No 1511 | M4V, AVC, 2000 kbps, 640x360 | English, AAC, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 11.39 GB
Infectious diseases touch the lives of everyone on the planet. On a worldwide scale, infectious diseases account for 26% of all deaths, second only to cardiovascular diseases. And unlike chronic diseases, infectious diseases are unique in their potential for explosive global impacts.
In fact, infectious diseases have shaped the course of human events numerous times:
- The fall of the Roman Empire: Malaria may have contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire. Romans were used to the non-fatal strain of vivax malaria, but later encountered a new mosquito species that brought the deadly falciparum malaria form.
- World War I: Tuberculosis was so rampant in the French army that 150,000 troops were sent home. In total, the countries involved in WWI lost over a million citizens to TB.
- World War II: Many battles in the South Pacific between U.S. and Japanese armies were solely for the purpose of securing islands that supported the growth of quinine—the first and most important antimalarial compound at the time. More soldiers died in the South Pacific from malaria than actual combat!
Now, in the 24 engaging lectures of An Introduction to Infectious Diseases, you can get a comprehensive overview of diseases from the mundane to the fatal with renowned physician and award-winning professor Dr. Barry Fox of the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health. Stepping into Dr. Fox’s classroom will give you unparalleled access to a physician who has dedicated his career to this topic, providing the most reliable, clear, in-depth and up-to-date information.
Zoom in to the Microscopic World
First and foremost, understanding infectious disease requires an overview of the microscopic particles responsible for them: bacteria, viruses, hybrid germs, and fungi. You will:
- see how various types of infectious diseases invade the body;
- look through the microscope at pathogens to identify their inner components;
- follow germs through to different body systems and see what effects they have; and
- learn why we may be losing the battle against some germs.
One particularly fascinating facet of this course is its focus on history. Step back in time and experience the world as the scientists and doctors of the day saw it.
- Hippocrates Defies Tradition: The ancient Greeks believed that disease was caused either by miasma (bad air) or a punishment meted out by the gods. Hippocrates was imprisoned for daring to postulate his own theories. During his 20 years in prison, he wrote The Complicated Body, which set a course for the future of modern medicine.
- Fathers of Microbiology: Anton van Leeuwenhoek, who started his career examining fabric in a dry goods store, honed the power of magnifying lenses and eventually discovered bacteria in 1674. Robert Hooke improved upon the design of the microscope, confirmed van Leeuwenhoek’s discoveries, and coined the word “cell.”
- Germ Theory of Disease: The miasma theory of disease held sway for centuries, until scientists like Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur were able to prove that microorganisms were responsible for infectious disease. Koch’s four postulates set the standard for proof of infectivity up to the present day, and Pasteur’s contributions to science were so monumental that he was declared a national hero.
- Technological Discoveries: With each discovery, from the electron microscope to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic technology, witness the progress that scientists are making in the field of infectious diseases every decade.
Dr. Fox’s enthusiasm for teaching science comes through in the stories he tells about each of the major discoveries—and stumbling blocks—in the study and treatment of infectious disease.
Preventing Infectious Disease in Your Daily Life
When it comes to preventing infectious disease, knowledge is power. In the popular media, the subjects of infectious disease, vaccinations, and medications are fraught with misinformation and hyperbole. Dr. Fox cuts through the myths and provides a solidly scientific guide to keeping yourself and your loved ones as protected as possible from pathogens.
- Vaccinations: Vaccines are the single safest medical procedure for you, your children, and your grandchildren. Dr. Fox devotes an entire lecture to explaining how vaccines work, debunking popular myths, and explaining how herd immunity works—and when it doesn’t.
- Healthy Habits: Washing your hands with soap and water for at least 24 seconds eliminates the vast majority of harmful organisms. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is also effective, but not against norovirus (so if you’re on a cruise, wash your hands!). Other simple habits like leaving your shoes at the door and putting the lid down on the toilet before you flush can help keep your home healthy.
- Travel Preparations: Your primary care physician is actually not the best person to consult before you travel abroad. A travel clinic can help you determine which medications to pack, any precautions you need to take regarding food and drink, and any boosters or new vaccines you may need.
A Global Responsibility
Globalization has added yet another factor to the study and prevention of infectious disease. Before the advent of accessible world travel, an epidemic could only spread locally—but now, one could spread worldwide in a matter of days. We saw this firsthand when the Ebola outbreak in West Africa was carried to the United States via air travel.
Dr. Fox acknowledges the gravity of such an outbreak and reviews probable scenarios in the final lecture, inviting you to apply your knowledge and help him predict the next pandemic.
About 50% of prescribed antibiotics are used incorrectly or unnecessarily. Dr. Fox identifies exactly which infections will benefit from antibiotics and which will resolve with other treatments. Responsible antibiotic use today ensures that the next generation can benefit from these indispensable drugs.
A Trusted Professional Resource
Throughout these 24 information-packed lectures, Dr. Fox delivers clear and up-to-date information on dozens of infectious diseases. As a practicing physician in the field of infectious diseases, he is the ultimate authority on this topic—and you will have him “on demand” as a personal resource in this engaging course.
Whether you have a love for biology, a curiosity about the world’s many infectious diseases, or a certain amount of trepidation about what the future holds, you will enjoy Dr. Fox’s impeccable bedside manner, insider knowledge, and humorous personal stories. And most importantly, you will be empowered to make the best choices for yourself, your loved ones, and future generations.
- The Dynamic World of Infectious Disease
- Bacteria: Heroes and Villains
- Viruses: Hijackers of Your Body's Cells
- Moldy Menaces and Fungal Diseases
- Milestones in Infectious Disease History
- Antibiotics: A Modern Miracle Lost?
- Which Germs in Your Daily Life Matter?
- Six Decades of Infectious Disease Challenges
- Vaccines Save Lives
- The Immune System: Our Great Protector
- Zoonosis: Germs Leap from Animals to Humans
- Tick-Borne Diseases: A Public Health Menace
- Food-Borne Illness: What's Your Gut Feeling?
- Respiratory and Brain Infections
- Flesh-Eating Bacteria and Blood Poisoning
- STDs and Other Infections below the Belt
- Stay Out of the Hospital!
- The Nemesis of Mankind: HIV and AIDS
- Malaria and Tuberculosis: Global Killers
- Global Travel, War, and Natural Disasters
- Influenza: Past and Future Threat
- Bioterrorism: How Worried Should We Be?
- Emerging and Reemerging Diseases
- Outbreak! Contagion! The Next Pandemic!
The Persian Empire [TTC Video]
06 July 2015, 13:03
Course No 3117 | MKV, x264, 996 kbps, 960x720 | English, AAC, 2 Ch | 24x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 5.47GB
What do we know about the Persian Empire? For most of the past 2,500 years, we've heard about it from the ancient Greek perspective: a decadent civilization run by despots, the villains who lost the Battle of Marathon and supplied the fodder for bad guys in literature and film. But is this image really accurate?
Recent scholarship examining the Persian Empire from the Persian perspective has discovered a major force that has had a lasting influence on the world in terms of administration, economics, religion, architecture, and more. In fact, the Persian Empire was arguably the world's first global power—a diverse, multicultural empire with flourishing businesses and people on the move. It was an empire of information, made possible by a highly advanced infrastructure that included roads, canals, bridges, and a courier system. And the kings of Persia's Achaemenid dynasty —Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes, and others—presided over an empire that created a tremendous legacy for subsequent history.
The Persian Empire is your opportunity to see one of the greatest empires in the ancient world from a fresh new perspective: its own. Over the span of 24 fascinating lectures, Professor John W. I. Lee of the University of California, Santa Barbara—a distinguished teacher and an expert on the long-buried secrets of the ancient world—takes the role of a history detective and examines Persian sources to reveal what we now know about this grand civilization. Tapping into the latest scholarship on the Persian Empire, this course is sure to fill in some critical gaps in your understanding and appreciation of the sweep of ancient history and its undeniable effect on later civilizations. Including our own.
Meet Ancient Persia's Great Leaders and Everyday Citizens
According to Professor Lee, the Achaemenid Persian Empire was enormous, comprising 25 million people—only 1 million of whom were Persian. How did such a small minority manage such a large population? Why were these imperialists so tolerant of those under their rule, leaving untouched many of the subjugated population's local customs?
In The Persian Empire, you'll discover how the Persians were able to create and control such a vast empire. And the key to that success lay in the empire's greatest rulers, each of whom played a critical role in shaping and strengthening a civilization we still remember today. Among the fascinating leaders you'll meet are
- Cyrus, ancient Persia's first Great King, whose pragmatic leadership solidified the empire;
- Cambyses, who through military prowess expanded the Persian Empire into Egypt;
- Darius I, who created Persia's imperial ideology and built up the empire's celebrated infrastructure; and
- Artaxerxes II, who held the empire together in the face of civil war and restored its power.
But while these great kings were administering justice or waging wars, everyday Persians were just as important to the success of the empire. Professor Lee expertly moves between the historical record—the story of kings and battles—and the lives of ordinary people. You'll learn about
- the empire's efficient communications network, which in some ways presaged today's globalized world;
- the Persian economy and the workers and entrepreneurs who supported it;
- the role of women in the empire, especially the power and influence of royal women;
- the relationship between the state and the popular Achaemenid religion; and
- the daily cultural exchanges between the diverse peoples of the empire.
Get at the Startling Truths about the Persian Empire
The Persians did not write histories, and no literature from ancient Persia survives; rather, the earliest historical narratives we have about this empire come from Greeks such as the historians Herodotus, Xenophon, and Ctesias. While important, these accounts detail the frequent wars between the Persians and the Greeks, and they tend to demonize the Persians as despotic barbarians.
Unfortunately, it's a stereotype that's persisted through the millennia. But The Persian Empire helps correct this misinformation by tapping into the ways that historians, within only the last 30 years, have been reconsidering this civilization. Professor Lee guides you through a wide variety of sources that finally get at the startling truths about the Persian Empire:
- Histories written by non-Greek sources, including the Hebrew Bible
- Persian administrative records and historical documents
- Inscriptions by Persia's great kings, including Darius
- Long-buried archaeological artifacts and ruins
By learning from these and other sources, you'll get to know the people and the culture of the Persian Empire on intimate terms. And, in doing so, you'll come to grasp a much fuller history of an important early empire.
For instance, despite the negative accounts of war, the Greeks and the Persians had many peaceful interactions. Many Greek doctors, craftsmen, and especially mercenary soldiers were comfortable serving under Persian rule. It was this tolerance and practical leadership, you'll learn, that allowed the Persians to maintain their powerful empire for hundreds of years.
Discover a Whole New History of the Ancient World
With The Persian Empire, and with Professor Lee, you'll discover a whole new history of the ancient world—a perspective largely unknown even by students of history. In fact, even today very few universities offer in-depth courses on ancient Persia. With these lectures, you'll find yourself on the cutting edge of historical research.
Recognized multiple times by the University of California, Santa Barbara for his teaching prowess and scholarship (including the Academic Senate Distinguished Teaching Award and the Harold Plous Award), Professor Lee is the perfect guide on your tour of this unique corner of the ancient world. With dozens of maps, animations, illustrations, and other informative graphics featured in the video versions of the course, you'll get to know the terrain of the empire, which stretched from the Mediterranean all the way to the Indus Valley in South Asia.
Spanning these thousands of miles, the Persian Empire was truly a force to be reckoned with in the ancient world. Its successes were great—and so were its failures. The empire's downfall to Alexander the Great and the Macedonians is a suspenseful tale of military cunning and historical circumstance. And while the Persian Empire ultimately fell, its legacy lives on in the areas of language, religion, and so much more.
Professor Lee's The Persian Empire captures the people, the strength, the rise, and the downfall of this great empire, revealing the complexity behind centuries of a previously one-sided history. Take this opportunity to complete your understanding of the ancient world and discover the humanity of the ancient Persians.
- Rethinking the Persian Empire
- Questioning the Sources
- The World before Cyrus
- Cyrus and Cambyses—Founders of the Empire
- Darius I—Creator of the Imperial System
- Persian Capitals and Royal Palaces
- The Great King—Images and Realities
- Royal Roads and Provinces
- East of Persepolis
- Challenges in the West, 513–494 B.C.
- Across the Bitter Sea, 493–490 B.C.
- Xerxes Becomes King
- Xerxes’s War, 480–479 B.C.
- Cultures in Contact
- Achaemenid Religion
- From Expansion to Stability, 479–405 B.C.
- The War of the Two Brothers
- Persian Gold
- City and Countryside
- Women in the Persian Empire
- Artaxerxes II—The Longest-Ruling King
- Persia and Macedon, 359–333 B.C.
- The End of an Empire, 333–323 B.C.
- Legacies of the Persian Empire
Building a Better Vocabulary [TTC Video]
03 July 2015, 11:31
Course No 9373 | M4V, AVC, 2000 kbps, 640x360 | English, AAC, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 36x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 17.3GB
What does the word bombast have to do with cushion stuffing? What is the difference between specious and spurious? Would you want someone to call you a snollygoster?
The hallmark of a powerful vocabulary is not simply knowing many words; rather, it’s knowing the exact word to use in a specific context or situation. A great vocabulary can enhance your speaking, writing, and even thinking skills. This course will boost your vocabulary, whether you want to enhance your personal lexicon, write or speak more articulately in professional settings, or advance your knowledge of the English language. For anyone who has ever grasped for the perfect word at a particular moment, this course provides a research-based and enjoyable method for improving your vocabulary.
Building a Better Vocabulary,taught by Professor Kevin Flanigan of West Chester University of Pennsylvania, offers an intriguing look at the nuts and bolts of English, teaches you the etymology (history) and morphology (structure) of words, and delves into the cognitive science behind committing new words to long-term memory.
Any lifelong learner can build a better vocabulary with these engaging lectures, but they will be particularly useful for:
- readers who want a greater appreciation of literature;
- writers or speakers seeking the “just right” word;
- those who are intellectually curious about language and linguistics;
- students studying for college entrance exams; and
- anyone looking to boost their working vocabulary.
By the end of the course, you will have a practical framework for continuing to build your vocabulary by discovering new words and fully mastering the nuances of familiar ones.
Harness the Way Your Brain Learns Language
Research in cognitive psychology informs Professor Flanigan’s methods for teaching vocabulary. These methods apply whether the student is a new reader, a struggling student, a person learning English as a second language, or an intellectual looking to expand his or her vocabulary.
In particular, you will learn about the five core principles of effective vocabulary learning, as illustrated here with the word factotum.
- Clear definitions: A factotum is someone hired to do a variety of jobs, someone who has many different responsibilities, or a jack-of-all-trades.
- Rich context: Batman’s butler, Alfred, is a factotum. He keeps the affairs of the Wayne estate in order, maintains and repairs the Batmobile, and even offers his employer sage advice.
- Personal connections: Think of a person in your life who is a jack-of-all-trades. When you think of the word factotum, attach it to a memory of this person.
- Exploring the morphology: The root fac is from the Latin verb facio, meaning “to make or do” and the Latin word totum means “all.” Thus, a factotum is literally someone who can do it all.
- Semantic chunking: Schema are your brain’s “file folders” which link your newly-learned word to things you already know. Connect your new word, factotum, with familiar people, as well as words that share the fac root, such as factory and manufacture.
To aid in providing clear definitions, rich context, personal connections, morphology, and schema development, Professor Flanigan organizes these lectures by theme. This allows you to fully understand the differences between closely related synonyms and gives your brain the opportunity to create connections and file new words in long-term memory.
You’ll learn a vast array of words about:
- love and hate,
- trustworthy people and liars,
- war and peace,
- praise and criticism,
- breaking and joining, and much more.
You will supplement the robust information included in the course guidebook with your own vocabulary notebook, where you can jot down personal connections to each word to further cement your knowledge.
Go Beyond the Dictionary
Cognitive scientists have proven that the brain is hard-wired to remember stories. We find it easier to remember information presented as a story than as a list of facts. Learning etymological narratives—or stories about the history of words—leverages this powerful vocabulary learning tool.
- Fighting words: Donnybrook, Ireland was known for its annual fair... and the drunken, riotous brawls that occurred there each year. When you want to describe a raucous and violent confrontation, donnybrook is the perfect word.
- From literal to figurative: In the 16th century, bombast referred to cotton stuffing for cushions. Today, the word refers to “fluffy” speech or writing that doesn’t offer any substance.
- Footlong words: Sesquipedalian, an adjective that means “given to the overuse of long words,” was inspired by the Roman poet, Horace, who often criticized others for using long, pompous-sounding words. He used the phrase sesquipedalia verba—literally “words a foot and a half long.”
A large part of a word’s etymology is its morphology, including the Latin or Greek roots from which it sprang. Approximately 70% of English vocabulary is derived from Latin or Greek affixes or roots, and the number increases to over 90% for scientific jargon. These fascinating lectures delve into affixes and roots from Latin and Greek, as well as words that English borrowed from other languages, including German, Yiddish, Japanese, Gaelic, the romance languages, and more.
If you are an avid reader, you may have previously encountered some of the words in this course. But even the most voracious reader will be surprised and delighted by these eye-opening lectures, which delve into the building blocks of the English language and reveal intriguing new nuances to words you thought you knew well.
Activities to Test Your Knowledge
Professor Flanigan’s expert instruction helps you build vocabulary knowledge that is broad, deep, and flexible. By the end of these 36 fascinating lectures, you should:
- be familiar with more words,
- know the differences between similar words for the same concept,
- be able to make connections between new words and familiar ones,
- be better able to infer a word’s meanings from its morphology and context, and
- apply new words confidently when you speak or write.
Vocabulary games can help achieve these goals—and they are fun whether you are testing your knowledge alone or competing with friends or family members. They are particularly helpful with creating a flexible vocabulary, as they provide opportunities to use and think about words in novel and creative ways.
- Riddles: Learn a clever game that pairs a rhyming answer comprised of familiar words to a question full of sophisticated—perhaps even sesquipedalian—ones.
- Clue Review: Sit in the “hot seat” and test your knowledge with a partner. The hard part? Both of you must know the word and its definition to win!
- Taboo: This popular game has a lot in common with effective strategies for vocabulary learners. Taboo will have you thinking flexibly, making connections, using synonyms, antonyms, and related words—and improving your vocabulary while having fun.
Experience the Joy of Words
In the words of the Greek historian Plutarch, “The mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be kindled.” The goal of Building a Better Vocabulary, then, is not to cram your mind with new words, but to kindle a passion for the process by which words are created and the beauty of the words you read, speak, and hear every day. These 36 lectures will certainly set your mind ablaze and change the way you experience the world.
Professor Flanigan’s approach to learning vocabulary makes each lecture a joy to experience. As a former reading specialist and literacy coach, he understands the cognitive science behind language acquisition and is able to present each new word in a way that makes it immediately memorable.
But more importantly, he teaches you these tips and strategies so you can apply them whenever you learn a new word. By the end of the course, you’ll have a vocabulary notebook filled with valuable notes, sketches, stories, and strategies—and you’ll be eager to start reading and update it with new words you encounter.
As you may have already guessed, you would not want to be called a snollygoster; it is an antiquated term of contempt for a shrewd, unscrupulous person.
- Five Principles for Learning Vocabulary
- The Spelling-Meaning Connection
- Words for Lying, Swindling, and Conniving
- Words That Express Annoyance and Disgust
- Fighting Words and Peaceful Words
- Going beyond Dictionary Meanings
- Wicked Words
- Words for Beginnings and Endings
- Words Expressing Fear, Love, and Hatred
- Words for the Everyday and the Elite
- Words from Gods and Heroes
- Humble Words and Prideful Words
- High-Frequency Greek and Latin Roots
- Words Relating to Belief and Trust
- Words for the Way We Talk
- Words for Praise, Criticism, and Nonsense
- Eponyms from Literature and History
- Thinking, Teaching, and Learning Words
- Words for the Diligent and the Lazy
- Words That Break and Words That Join
- Some High-Utility Greek and Latin Affixes
- Cranky Words and Cool Words
- Words for Courage and Cowardice
- Reviewing Vocabulary through Literature
- Words for Killing and Cutting
- A Vocabulary Grab Bag
- Words for Words
- Specialty Words for Language
- Nasty Words and Nice Words
- Words for the Really Big and the Very Small
- Spelling as a Vocabulary Tool
- A Medley of New Words
- Building Vocabulary through Games
- Words English Borrowed and Never Returned
- More Foreign Loan Words
- Forgotten Words and Neologisms