The Roman Empire: From Augustus to the Fall of Rome [TTC Video]
26 April 2019, 08:49
Course No 3344 | MP4, AVC, 960x540 | AAC, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 8.18GB
In 31 BCE, on an otherwise unremarkable afternoon in the Mediterranean, the Roman general Octavian surveyed the aftermath of the ferocious Battle of Actium, where he’d defeated his rival Mark Antony in a war for control of Rome. This moment, in which a military leader rests and reflects on his next move toward becoming the sole leader of the Western world, is the germ out of which grows one of the most breathtaking stories in world history. This leader would soon ingeniously maneuver his way to become Rome’s first emperor, setting the stage for five centuries of Roman expansion; warfare; and, ultimately, collapse.
When Octavian, who took the title of Augustus as the first emperor of Rome, defeated Mark Antony to become the sole ruler of the Roman world, it was a major turning point in Western civilization. Not only did his decades-long rule completely transform the old Roman Republic into the Roman Empire, but it also profoundly shaped the culture and history of our world today. The Roman Empire: From Augustus to the Fall of Rome traces this breathtaking history from the empire’s foundation by Augustus to its Golden Age in the 2nd century CE through a series of ever-worsening crises until its ultimate disintegration.
Taught by acclaimed Professor Gregory S. Aldrete of the University of Wisconsin–Green Bay, these 24 captivating lectures offer you the chance to experience this story like never before, incorporating the latest historical research, perspectives, and insights that challenge our previous notions of Rome’s decline. Professor Aldrete examines the major events and familiar figures of the Roman Empire, including:
- The political innovations of Augustus—and his one major shortcoming;
- The mental instability and cruel acts of Caligula and Nero;
- Writers such as Ovid, Horace, and Virgil;
- The stoic philosophy of Marcus Aurelius;
- Attila the Hun, Alaric, and other “barbarians” who threatened the empire; and
- Christian philosophers such as Augustine and Jerome.
But this course also moves beyond the famous figures and delves deeply into the lives of ordinary Roman women and men. You’ll read the messages they left on tombstones or scribbled on walls as graffiti; examine what life was really like for average city-dwellers and the hazards they faced every day; spend a day in Rome’s spectacular public entertainments, such as gladiator games and chariot races; and explore some of the city’s marvelous architectural and engineering works, including the Pantheon and the aqueducts.
The more you learn about the ancient Romans, the more you will realize how much we still walk in their footsteps. From particulars of the English language to our system of government to our religious practices, we are still experiencing the echoes of the Roman Empire in our world today. Indeed, we cannot truly understand ourselves unless we comprehend the vital influences of Rome on the modern world—and the lessons the empire can still teach us. The Roman Empire: From Augustus to the Fall of Rome is an informative—and highly entertaining—guide to one of the most important periods in world history.
Study the Roman Emperors—Stable and Strong, Strange and Insane
One major theme throughout the Roman Empire is the tenuous nature of power. Because Augustus selected heredity as his succession plan, each emperor had to reckon with choosing—or, in some cases, adopting—his heir. Frequently, emperors who inherited the title were incompetent at best, and some were downright depraved.
Because history is ultimately about people, Professor Aldrete introduces you to the characters behind the names, and brings their stories to life. You’ll find out who stabilized Rome, and how; who spent money on useless projects such as a 100-foot golden statue of himself in the nude; who the citizens loved and who the citizens feared. For instance:
- Tiberius was dour and introverted, and was often tight-fisted, which didn’t endear him to the citizens, but he did secure the borders.
- Caligula, meanwhile, took the throne riding a wave of popularity, but his reign soon degenerated into madness, bizarre actions, and terror.
- Nero never fiddled while Rome burned, but he did murder senators, citizens, and even his own mother (a process that took numerous Monty Python-esque twists and turns).
- Domitian had a habit of shutting himself in his room for hours at a time, catching and impaling flies.
- Constantine founded a second capital city for the Empire at Byzantium and immodestly renamed it Constantinople after himself.
Discover Rome as Experienced by Everyday Citizens
While surveying the major figures gives you a broad look at the empire’s history, Professor Aldrete goes beyond the traditional “kings and battles” approach to show you what life was like for ordinary people—starting with the nature of the city itself.
Given the traditional historical emphasis on Rome as a civilized city of good governance, engineering marvels, and magnificent architecture, you might believe the city was a clean metropolis made up of beautiful marble and elegant baths. In reality, the city was dirty, dank, and disease-ridden. Professor Aldrete cites the five F’s: floods, fires, famine, filth, and fevers—not a place you’d want to visit.
Traditional history has relied on elite, upper-class, and primarily male sources to tell us about life in Rome, but recent historians have focused on additional sources to bring the story of everyday Romans to life. In this course, you’ll examine a variety of sources that were previously overlooked or unexamined, including letters; administrative documents; epitaphs on tombstones; and, perhaps most interestingly, graffiti.
The graffiti gives us exciting insight into the minds of people long gone—and long ignored in the history books. You’ll discover eerily modern-sounding commentary on the walls of Pompeii, preserved thanks to the infamous volcano: advertisements for rooms for rent, creative and amusing political campaign ads, complaints about service in the local tavern, vulgar commentary, and even simple announcements along the lines of “Septimius was here.”
Investigate Why and When Rome Finally Collapsed
Two of the most intriguing questions about the Roman Empire are why, and when, it collapsed. As you’ll discover, historians can make the case for numerous years, including:
- 31 BCE: The Battle of Actium, which marked the end of the Old Republic
- 180 CE: The death of Marcus Aurelius, the last in a string of “good” emperors during Rome’s Golden Age
- 312: Constantine’s conversion to Christianity, the next major force to sweep across the West
- 410: The Visigoth Alaric’s sack of Rome
- 1453: The fall of Constantinople to the Turks
- 1917: The Russian revolution and the final end of a system that had once considered itself the ideological heirs of Rome
Professor Aldrete does not give you an easy answer, but rather shows how history develops over time, driven by a multiplicity of factors. Forces ranging from barbarian invasions to economic collapse to climate change all played a role in the gradual end of the Roman Empire.
He also brings in a fascinating counter-perspective. The traditional story is one of collapse as Rome disintegrated and the gloomy “Dark Ages” emerged in the 4th and 5th centuries. Recently, historians have been re-examining the years from 200-600 and discovering a different story. They see in this era—“late antiquity”—invigorating change and a vibrant mingling of cultures.
Historians could debate the end of the empire all day, but Professor Aldrete simply presents the evidence and leaves it to you to formulate your own answers. One thing is certain: The Roman Empire may be ancient history, but it is far from over. The Roman Empire: From Augustus to the Fall of Rome gives you an exciting, informative, often-amusing, and always entertaining look at an era and a people who continue to astound and interest us today.
The Rise of Rome [TTC Video]
12 April 2018, 15:15
Course No 3350 | M4V, AVC, 854x480 | AAC, 160 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 2.68GB
The Roman Republic was one of the most breathtaking civilizations in world history. Over the course of about 500 years, a modest city-state developed an innovative system of government and expanded into far-flung territories across Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East. This powerful civilization inspired America’s founding fathers, gifted us a blueprint for amazing engineering innovations, left a vital trove of myths, and has inspired the human imagination for 2,000 years.
How did Rome become so powerful? This mystery has vexed historians from the ancient Greek writer Polybius to 21st century scholars. Today, removed as we are from the Roman Republic, historians also wonder what it was like to be a Roman citizen in that amazing era. Beyond the familiar names of Romulus, Caesar, Octavian, Brutus, and Mark Antony, what was life like for the ordinary people? And what did the Italians, the Greeks, the Gauls, and other conquered peoples think of this world power?
The Great Courses is pleased to shed new light on this history. The Rise of Rome explores what made this state so powerful—and offers insight into why the republic cast such a long shadow over Western civilization. Taught by Professor Gregory S. Aldrete of the University of Wisconsin–Green Bay, these 24 exciting lectures tell the captivating story of Rome’s astonishing rise, from the monarchy of the eighth century B.C.E. to the collapse of the republic and ending just before its rebirth into an empire. You’ll witness the historical turning points, meet the amazing players, and get a feel for what it was like for everyday Romans, all in an effort to understand the story of Rome as it grew from a myth into an empire, examining in detail the less familiar history of the republic prior to its world-altering imperial transformation.
Here, you will trace the early history of Rome from its modest beginnings, through its violent development, to the pinnacle of its stunning triumph over the Mediterranean, and finally to the moment the republic dramatically collapsed under the strain of its own accomplishments, only to rise again in the new form of empire. You will examine the many well-known dramatic events of early Roman history, from the skirmishes with the neighboring Etruscans to the assassination of Julius Caesar. You will also consider the ordinary aspects of Roman daily life—what they ate, what games they played, the religious rituals they observed, and more, all in an effort to understand the texture of daily life.
Along the way, you will encounter an array of intriguing figures from both history and legend, from Romulus and Remus to Lucretia to Scipio to Pompey the Great, as well as the lives of often overlooked everymen and everywomen—the slaves, soldiers, farmers, women, and children of Rome and its territories. Tapping into our latest historical understanding and leveraging new technology, The Rise of Rome takes you inside the breathtaking story of the Roman Republic.
Witness the Drama of Roman History
Rome is arguably the most influential city in Western history, and its influence is still present nearly everywhere one looks today—in our language, our laws, and even how we tell time. But one reason the Roman Republic has captured our imaginations for the past 2,000 years is that its story is filled with high drama: scandals and betrayals, love affairs and murders, battles and glory.
Professor Aldrete traces this thrilling story across the centuries, starting with the mythic beginnings of the city-state:
- See how Virgil’s Aeneid connects the rise of Rome with the legacy of Greek culture.
- Delve into the competition between the brothers Romulus and Remus for control of Rome.
- Consider how stories like the rape of the Sabine women and the tale of Lucretia offer insight into Roman values and culture.
- Explore the culture of the Etruscans to examine Rome’s relationship with its neighbors.
After witnessing Rome’s expansion over Italy, you will trace the wars that won the Romans far-flung territory—the Punic Wars, the conquest of Greece, invasions into Northern Africa, and expansion into Europe. Professor Aldrete does an excellent job of taking you into battles to show you the strategy and outcomes. For instance, after a devastating loss in the pivotal Battle of Cannae, you’ll discover how the Romans’ ability to rebuild and refocus their military power, even after defeat, made them such a formidable and resilient force.
Despite all this success, you’ll also see how competition among politicians, generals, and warlords back in Rome sowed the seeds for the Republic’s collapse. The course rounds out with a stunning series of lectures on the rise of Julius Caesar, his assassination, and the competition between Octavian and Mark Antony for control of the republic. Find out how the dramatic stories many of us are familiar with—like the love affair of Mark Antony and Cleopatra—were part of a larger unfolding of events that led to the fall of the republic and the beginnings of imperial Rome.
Go inside This Fascinating Civilization
Interspersed with the operatic narrative of Roman history are fascinating explorations of the texture of daily life within the republic, giving you a sense of what life was like for men and women whose lives played out against the backdrop of the events that fill history books. For instance, you will:
- Discover the different strata within Roman society—citizens and noncitizens, patricians and plebeians, soldiers and farmers, and more.
- Examine the institution of slavery to see who the Roman slaves were, where they came from, and what daily life was like for them.
- Explore what ordinary people ate, where they lived, and what types of employment they had.
- Survey some of the many social challenges society faced, including veterans who returned from wars penniless, having lost their farms.
- Find out what we know about Roman women and their domestic lives.
One common theme running through these lectures is that the Romans continually faced massive social and political challenges. For instance, the Romans professed to admire farmers as being natural, hardworking, salt-of-the-earth citizens, but throughout the years of the republic, farmers constantly struggled to make ends meet, often losing their land if they were called into battle. The social upheaval from political challenges eventually caught up to the leaders of the republic, and the concerns of daily life drove historic political changes.
Unpack the Rise—and Fall—of the Republic
One of the most fascinating questions in this course centers on the nature of Roman expansion. Was it deliberate or accidental? Was the Roman administration a well-run machine designed to expand into an empire, or did the Romans expand their territory through accidental circumstances?
As you’ll discover, a case can be made for either argument. By the end of the republic, it’s clear that whether it was accidental or not, Rome eventually became a victim of its own success. Professor Aldrete characterizes the factionalism and competition within the government—introducing you to the likes of Marius, Sulla, and Cicero—and he shows how these divisions culminated with the assassination of Julius Caesar, the competition to fill the power vacuum, and the dissolution of the republic.
From city-state to grand republic to tragic end, this course takes you on a thrilling journey through the rise of the republic and the dramatic changes that transformed a republican government into an empire of unprecedented power. Despite what you think you know about the Roman Republic, The Rise of Rome is sure to offer a bounty of new insights and can build a foundation for the next stage of Roman history: The Roman Empire and its eventual collapse.
Great Music of the Twentieth Century [TTC Video]
12 April 2018, 15:09
Course No 7006 | M4V, AVC, 640x360 | AAC, 160 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x45 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 3.88GB
The 20th century was a breeding ground of musical exploration, innovation, and transformation unlike any other era in history. Breaking with the traditions of the past, early 20th-century composers upended the old order of concert music, igniting both passionate admiration and white-hot controversy with works such as Claude Debussy’s Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, whose ethereal, otherworldly sonic textures initiated musical modernism; and Igor Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring, whose jarring primitivism and the near-riot of its premiere are the stuff of musical legend.
But these were only the tip of a monumental iceberg—the beginning of an explosion of new musical languages and syntaxes that would last for the entire century, ranging from the non-tonality of Arnold Schoenberg and the individualist vision of Charles Ives to the the stylistic synthesis of Béla Bartók, the ultraserialism of Milton Babbitt, and the remarkable eclecticism of Henry Cowell.
As always in music history, these artistic currents directly reflected changes in the world at large, as composers responded to the upheavals, dislocations, paradigm shifts, world wars, globalism, and other momentous happenings that the century brought—creating masterworks that rank among history’s greatest moments of musical expression.
And yet, parallel with these transformations came the perception—which echoes to this day—that the new music could be difficult, challenging to grasp, and at times simply unintelligible—all of which figured within tumultuous and unending debates about what music should or could be.
Now, speaking to these extraordinary and galvanizing events, Great Courses favorite Professor Robert Greenberg of San Francisco Performances returns with one of his most provocative, most compelling, and most rewarding courses ever. In Great Music of the 20th Century, Professor Greenberg unfurls a huge spectrum of new works and material that have not been covered in depth in previous courses. Ranging across the 20th century in its entirety, these 24 lectures present a musical cornucopia of astonishing dimensions—a major presentation and exploration of the incredible brilliance and diversity of musical art across a turbulent century.
Discover a Breathtaking Epoch in Western Music
Taking a chronological approach, the course explores the fascinating gamut of 20th-century musical “isms,” from impressionism and fauvism to serialism, stochasticism, ultraserialism, neo-classicism, neo-tonalism, and minimalism, as well as the inclusivity and synthesis within concert music that embraced Western historical styles, folk and popular music, jazz, rock, Asian, Latin American, and other influences in the service of heightened expression. Through the panoramic view of the course, you’ll discover the genius of composers such as Webern, Antheil, Stockhausen, Bernstein, Takamitsu, and many others.
From the very first lecture, Professor Greenberg tackles the bugbear of 20th-century concert music directly, showing with remarkable clarity what these composers were up to, how to understand their compositional processes and visions, and how to appreciate and enjoy the sublime music this century produced.
For those familiar with Professor Greenberg’s previous courses, these lectures present a new approach to the musical excerpts themselves, and one that is aligned with the way people access music in the 21st century. Instead of playing musical excerpts within the lectures, Professor Greenberg provides easily accessible online resources to complete performances of all the works discussed, allowing you to explore them in their entirety, either while listening to the lectures, separately, or both. This approach offers the benefits of easy access to full performances of the works, plus a full 45 minutes of Professor Greenberg’s celebrated teaching and commentary in each lecture.
Grasp the Passionate Ideals and Groundbreaking Methods of Musical Modernism
Early in the course, you’ll delve into the historical, sociological, and psychological factors that underlay early 20th-century composers’ abandonment of musical tradition. In clear, accessible terms, you’ll learn about the trailblazing compositional approaches of the century’s great composers, and what motivated them, in cases such as:
- The Astounding Journey of Igor Stravinsky—Follow the trajectory of the 20th century’s most integrally influential composer, from his legendary “fauvist” scores for the Ballets Russes and his unexpected turn as a neoclassicist to his constant, lifelong experimentation and self-reinvention. Study Stravinsky’s rich range of masterpieces, including his iconic Pulcinella, his Symphony in Three Movements,and his career-capping Requiem Canticles.
- Beyond Tonality: The Legacy of Arnold Schoenberg—Learn the dramatic story of Schoenberg’s “emancipation” from traditional musical tonality, and his magisterial non-tonal and serial or “12-tone” works. Take account of the searing controversy surrounding his compositions and methodology, and his imprint on a lineage of brilliant composers. Experience landmark works, such as his masterful Pierrot Lunaire, Variations for Orchestra, and Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte.
- America’s Kaleidoscopic Offering to New Music—Across the span of the course, learn how 20th-century U.S. composers broke new ground in numerous and ingenious ways. Witness how American musical minds introduced jazz and popular idioms into concert music, created alternate tonal systems and musical instruments, pioneered electronic music, incorporated non-Western musical languages, and gave birth to genres such as minimalism.
- Ultraserialism and Its Backlash—Observe how a cadre of post-World War II composers sought to distance themselves from the mindset of fascism, ironically producing intellectualized music which audiences found difficult or impossible to listen to. Also note the counter-reaction that spurred other spirits to seek new expressive means, leading composers such as Iannis Xenakis and György Ligeti to create “sound mass” music of stunning beauty.
- Spanning the World: Globalism in Concert Music—Learn how concert music in the second half of the 20th century saw an unprecedented meeting of world cultures. Hear the inspired infusion of Indian, Indonesian, Chinese, and Native American musical forms in the music of composers such as Lou Harrison and Henry Cowell. Discover the fusion of Western and East Asian sensibilities in the works of Isang Yun (Korea) and Chinery Ung (Cambodia).
- A Multiplicity of Riches: Musical Pluralism—Grasp how the challenge for late 20th-century composers became the question of how to make use of the vast array of available musical languages, not only from 1,000 years of Western history, but from every culture across the world. Hear the amazing synthesis of musical forms in the brilliant works of Heitor Villa-Lobos, Luciano Berio, Aaron Jay Kernis, and Thomas Adès.
In his characteristic style, Professor Greenberg brings to each lecture a far-reaching and thoroughly absorbing historical context—delving into the circumstances that surrounded the writing of many key works, and showing how 20th-century composers responded to historical, socio-cultural, and personal events in their music. You’ll witness how the music of Béla Bartók was shaped by Hungarian nationalism; how devastating wartime experiences changed the music of Olivier Messiaen and Karlheinz Stockhausen; how Hindu aesthetics and Zen Buddhism influenced the “indeterminate” music of John Cage; and how a deeply personal event affected Arnold Schoenberg’s final break with Western tonality.
Experience the Genius and Dazzling Diversity of the Century’s Greatest Masterworks
Far more than simply a course of lectures, Great Music of the 20th Century comprises a huge and many-sided resource for discovering the endless riches of 20th-century concert music across the globe. The phenomenal range of genres and composers covered and the wealth of suggestions for specific works make this a reference that could easily inspire years of musical exploration and glorious listening. As just a tiny sampling, you’ll learn about majestic works such as:
- Alban Berg’s great Piano Sonata Op. 1 of 1909;
- Carlos Chávez’s invocation of native Mexican music in his Sinfonía India (1936);
- Elliott Carter’s polyphonic String Quartet No.2 (1959);
- George Crumb’s deeply poetic Ancient Voices of Children (1970);
- Luigi Nono’s grand-scale Prometeo (1984), a haunting meditation on the myth of Prometheus; and
- Jennifer Higdon’s luminous, expansive Blue Cathedral (1999).
As always, Professor Greenberg speaks with a composer’s intimate understanding of the act of musical creation, and with profound insight into his subjects’ thinking and creative processes. And, after 28 courses and over 600 individual lectures for The Great Courses, Professor Greenberg talks about his own music for the first time—ending the course with a memorable, firsthand account of one celebrated composer’s journey through this remarkable era.
Great Music of the 20th Century opens the door to an extraordinary spectrum of contemporary masterpieces that await discovery and deep listening. Within these unique and riveting lectures, Professor Greenberg offers you the keys to understanding and deep enjoyment of a revolutionary, visionary, and magnificent era in music. In Great Music of the 20th Century, you’ll experience the living, evolving, and superlative musical art that so vividly and unforgettably speaks to the life of our times.