Chaos [TTC Video]
27 July 2016, 15:19
Course No 1333 | AVI, XviD, 640x480 | MP3, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 4.44GB
It has been called the third great revolution of 20th-century physics, after relativity and quantum theory. But how can something called chaos theory help you understand an orderly world? What practical things might it be good for? What, in fact, is chaos theory? "Chaos theory," according to Dr. Steven Strogatz, Director of the Center for Applied Mathematics at Cornell University, "is the science of how things change." It describes the behavior of any system whose state evolves over time and whose behavior is sensitive to small changes in its initial conditions.
The 24 lectures of Chaos take you to the heart of chaos theory as it is understood today. Taught by Professor Strogatz, an award-winning Ivy League professor and a scientist described by Nature magazine as "one of the most creative biomathematicians of the past few decades," Chaos introduces you to a fascinating discipline that has more to do with your everyday life than you may realize.
A Revolutionary Way of Thinking
Surprisingly, you have already encountered chaos theory before, although you might not have recognized it at the time. From the flapping of a butterfly's wings to the dripping of a leaky faucet, chaos theory draws a wealth of unordinary insight from the most ordinary of occurrences.
Chaos theory affects nearly every field of human knowledge and endeavor, from astronomy and zoology to the arts, the humanities, and business. It can:
- help analysts understand price fluctuations in the stock market,
- ensure a smooth flow of data traffic on the Internet, and
- show insurance companies how to manage the risks of natural catastrophes.
This course shows you the importance of this revolutionary field and how it has helped us come closer than ever to solving some of life's mysteries. Today, the underlying mathematics of science's major unsolved problems—including the nature of consciousness, the origin of life, and cancer—are essentially nonlinear; express any of these problems as a mathematical system and you learn that the whole may be either more or less than the sum of its parts.
In its ability to tackle bewilderingly complex problems, chaos theory has revolutionized the way we perceive the world around us. It allows scientists to reach beyond a dependency on the analytical limitations of the deterministic, "clockwork" universe that was the legacy of thinkers like Galileo, Kepler, and especially Newton.
Throughout the lectures, Professor Strogatz makes the case for why chaos theory marks such a radical departure from traditional science:
- It asks unusual questions at the everyday scale of human life.
- It shifts the focus off the laws of nature and onto their consequences.
- It uses the computer not as a calculating tool but as a means of amplifying intuition.
- It does not reduce complex problems into their separate parts but puts the parts back together to help understand the whole.
- It is radically interdisciplinary in an era of increasingly specialized disciplines.
- It paints a topsy-turvy picture of the world in which simple systems can show complex behavior.
- It is a scientific field in which change came about suddenly.
Follow the Exciting Story of Chaos
As you delve into this ever-evolving field, you learn the surprising tale of how chaos theory was discovered—a story that Professor Strogatz likens to a detective novel filled with twists and turns.
First glimpsed by the French mathematician Henri Poincaré, the notion of chaos theory was lost for nearly a century before being rediscovered—almost accidentally. It was revived by a mathematically oriented meteorologist named Edward Lorenz, whose development of the butterfly effect (the extreme sensitivity of a chaotic system to tiny changes in its initial conditions) had little impact until the 1970s and 1980s, when the wave of chaos theory finally crashed onto the shores of the scientific community.
As you follow the story of chaos theory's development, you approach the core ideas of chaos in the same way the world's greatest thinkers, grounded in their historical contexts, once did. This story not only helps you understand the fundamentals of this field, but it also helps you appreciate the extraordinary intellectual feat that chaos theory represents.
Learn Chaos Theory Visually
This course offers you a unique opportunity to get an expert's instruction on the field of chaos theory and is one of the only places outside the halls of academia where you can follow along with detailed computer graphics—specifically developed for this course—as visual aids.
"For understanding these core concepts [of chaos theory], pictures turn out to be much more powerful than formulas," notes Professor Strogatz. Forgoing a heavy reliance on advanced math, he uses clear and powerful computer graphics to clarify chaos theory's core concepts.
A large portion of the course explores the intimate relationship between chaos theory and fractals: shapes or processes whose structures repeat ad infinitum such that the tiniest parts resemble the original whole. You see how fractals are unique from more commonly known shapes like circles and cubes and how they can be used to describe a variety of processes and phenomena like the jagged coastline of Norway or the drip paintings of Jackson Pollock.
Find the Unordinary in the Ordinary
Professor Strogatz's expert guidance lays bare the complexities of chaos theory in a way that any interested layperson can understand. With the insights he provides in Chaos, news stories about key scientific discoveries and new directions in research take on a fresh importance.
Professor Strogatz is a teacher repeatedly honored by institutions and students alike. During his tenure at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he received the E. M. Baker Memorial Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching, the university's only institute-wide teaching prize selected and awarded solely by students. In 2007, he received a lifetime achievement award for the communication of mathematics to the general public from the Joint Policy Board for Mathematics, which represents the four major American mathematical societies.
Whether charting the exciting history of the field, focusing on fractals as "the footprints of chaos," or journeying to the frontiers of chaos research, this course shows you new ways to think about and view the world around you.
Medical School for Everyone: Pediatrics Grand Rounds [TTC Video]
27 July 2016, 15:09
Course No 9553 | MP4, AVC, 1280x720 | AAC, 192 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x30 mins | 8.63GB
Kids, for all their youth and vigor, aren’t indestructible. They’re always growing, which makes their health needs different from those of the average adult. Enter pediatricians: trained medical experts whose sole mission is to help children reach their maximum potential.
Pediatrics, which focuses on the medical care of children from birth through adolescence, is one of the most fascinating specialized areas of modern medicine. Treating kids for everything from mild fevers to severe developmental disorders offers doctors an unrivaled set of challenges. For one thing, children often have a harder time communicating how—and what—they’re feeling. Furthermore, they’re constantly learning and exploring, which makes them especially prone to illness and injury. And the older they get, the more diagnostic complexities arise.
As painful as it can be to see suffering kids, to step into the shoes of a trained pediatrician is to better understand how these medical heroes diagnose common and uncommon illnesses in their young patients. The world of pediatrics makes for an exciting adventure in contemporary medicine, whether you’re
- a parent or caretaker who wants to know when (and when not) to worry;
- a practicing pediatrician looking for professional tips and strategies to use on the job;
- a medical student considering pediatrics as a potential field of study; or
- a casual learner hungry for the same medical problem-solving popularized in television and film.
Filled with the same high level of intrigue and insight that he’s brought to his other courses in the Medical School for Everyone series, Dr. Roy Benaroch invites you to follow him on more grand rounds cases—this time inside a typical pediatrics office. In Medical School for Everyone: Pediatrics Grand Rounds, you’ll don the doctor’s white coat for an accessible 24-lecture journey into the world of pediatric medicine. A general pediatrician and professor at Emory University’s School of Medicine, Dr. Benaroch introduces you to young patients who’ll sometimes test the limits of your knowledge—and challenge a pediatrician’s diagnostic skills—as you uncover clues to figure out appropriate diagnoses. And all the while, you’ll gain fresh knowledge about the world of pediatrics, including how pediatricians perform general examinations, how they cope with difficult patients (and their parents), and how they address some of the unique medical issues that only children face. You’ll also get a glimpse into how the field has evolved over the last century, and where it may be headed in the future.
Learn How Pediatricians Treat Kids
Good pediatric care, according to Dr. Benaroch, isn’t just about treating illness. It’s about making sure children have every opportunity to make the most of their lives as they become adults.
Throughout Pediatrics Grand Rounds, you’ll quickly see just how multifaceted and nuanced the medical treatment of children is, whether dealing with minor diagnoses like runny noses and ear infections or life-changing ones like cerebral palsy and neonatal pneumonia. Each of these stand-alone lectures presents you with a single case or series of related cases that you tackle alongside Dr. Benaroch, from initial symptoms and workup to the diagnosis and resulting treatment.
Here are just a few of the young patients you’ll encounter during your “office hours”:
- Jenna, a 14-year-old girl whose complaints of stomach pain and resultant weight loss lead you on an in-depth exploration of different types of abdominal pain and their sources.
- Vinny, a nine-year-old boy who comes to you with a small fever and cough… and then comes back with more complicated symptoms.
- Ezra, a young boy whose symptoms expose you to a rare (but well-known) complication of ear infections.
- Mabel, a three-year old with one-sided nasal discharge whose treatment requires some out-of-the-box thinking.
- Chaz, a 16-year-old young man whose chief complaint of headaches sparks an examination of complications from underlying health concerns.
A Panic-Free Resource for a Child’s Health and Wellness
Whether you decide to experience these lectures in sequence or watch them in the order of your greatest areas of interest, Pediatrics Grand Rounds is packed with information about children’s health. But sometimes children (whether babies, infants, or teenagers) have concerns that extend beyond the traditional realm of medicine.
Dr. Benaroch has crafted the perfect tool for parents and caretakers who want a panic-free resource for thinking about all the major aspects of their child’s health and wellness.
- Sleep: A good night’s rest is one of the most important things children of any age need. But sometimes, children have trouble sleeping—which can eventually spiral into a whole host of medical issues. You’ll get sound advice on everything from “resetting” a child’s body clock to cultivating healthy associations with sleep in fussy children.
- Discipline: How do you deal with compulsive lying and temper tantrums? According to Dr. Benaroch, disciplining your child when necessary isn’t about punishment. It’s about teaching. “Punishment is one tool,” he says. “But it’s often not the best tool. And punishment used too often just won’t work. Effective discipline takes multiple tools, time, patience, and love.”
- Mental health: The psychological and emotional well-being of a child is paramount to their future success in adulthood. And while the assistance of a child psychologist is sometimes necessary, the best behavioral and psychiatric care starts with the physicians who’ve grown to know a child best. A pediatrician’s knowledge of a family as a child ages gives him or her important insights into potential root causes—and can also be a source of strength for the child’s family.
Solve the Big Mysteries inside Little Patients
Resoundingly popular with lifelong learners, the Medical School for Everyone series is a powerful stage on which Dr. Benaroch exhibits his remarkable educational skills and his depth of medical knowledge. But what elevates this particular course from its companions is Dr. Benaroch’s career as a practicing pediatrician.
Whether he’s dealing with a premature infant, a case of international adoption, or a homeless youth, Dr. Benaroch treats every case in this course with care and compassion. You’ll quickly learn how the best pediatricians are caretakers and counselors, and are always there for the children they love to help. The experience of helping sick children is exciting and rewarding—especially when it transforms lives for the better.
“They’re little kids, sure,” Dr. Benaroch says of the patients in this course. “But there are some big mysteries to solve.”
The Long Shadow of the Ancient Greek World [TTC Video]
06 June 2016, 19:50
Course No 3310 | AVI, XviD, 640x480 | MP3, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 48x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 8.95GB
300 Spartans guarding the pass at Thermopylae. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle engaging in a dialogue that will give birth to Western philosophy. Alexander the Great conquering nearly the entire ancient world. The military and political history of ancient Greece is famously endowed with stirring scenes such as these. But Greek history is much more than a series of gripping set pieces.
The four centuries that saw the remarkable rise of Greek civilization tell a complex story about the growth of the institutions that laid the foundations for Western civilization.
Traditions that we take for granted today—including open political debate, trial by jury, and the concept of the social contract—were born and reached a vigorous maturity during this era. Not only do the traditions of democracy, law, and empire connect the ancient world with the modern, they also tell us more about the Greeks than any other aspect of their society, including their celebrated artistic and cultural achievements.
The Long Shadow of the Ancient Greek World immerses you in this exciting crucible of innovation in 48 fascinating lectures that focus on Greek democracy, law, and empire, as well as the people who molded them during the Archaic and Classical periods. Taught by award-winning scholar and educator Ian Worthington of the University of Missouri–Columbia, this comprehensive course takes you from 750 to 323 B.C.—a span of history that contains the emergence of Greece at the end of the Dark Ages and the final disintegration of Greek autonomy through the Macedonian kings Philip II and Alexander the Great.
Concentrating on the city-states of mainland Greece, with a special focus on Athens, The Long Shadow of the Ancient Greek World takes you through some of history's most hard-fought struggles—from armed conflicts (such as the Persian Wars, the Peloponnesian War, and the campaigns of Alexander the Great) to political and social struggles (including the late 6th-century civil war in Athens that pitted nobles against the lower classes and eventually produced the first stirrings of democracy).
This course, which covers more than three centuries of rich Athenian and Greek history, is an incredibly detailed look at the birth and maturation of our modern law and democracy. As you explore innovative Athenian approaches to law and empire, you discover how these approaches served as the bedrock for ideas and practices that you live with every day. You also encounter a wealth of intriguing links to many of our own contemporary institutions and attitudes:
- Democracy: Ancient democracy, like its modern form, was more than a matter of showing up at an assembly to cast a vote. The practice had a complex structure from the start, along with an ever-changing system of checks and balances.
- Law: Trial by jury was an invention of Athenian lawgivers, as was arbitration and the right of appeal. According to Professor Worthington, even lawyers originated in Athens in the form of professionals who were hired to write and deliver speeches in the courts.
- Empire: The age that produced Alexander the Great, whose sprawling empire disintegrated after his death, holds lessons about the danger of imperial overreach. By contrast, Alexander's father Philip II knew how to conquer—and how to negotiate and compromise as well.
Explore a Time of Exciting Developments
The Long Shadow of the Ancient Greek World begins with a strong background on the Bronze and Dark Ages, the turbulent era that led up to the Archaic and Classical periods. In the popular imagination, the Classical period is synonymous with ancient Greek culture, thanks to its memorable achievements in drama, architecture, sculpture, history, philosophy, oratory, and other fields. The Archaic period, however, evokes something backward and unsophisticated—a misunderstanding that Professor Worthington quickly clears up for you.
The Archaic period, as you discover, was instead a time of exciting political, social, and cultural developments; the period's Greek root, arche, means the start of something new. It was during this time that an innovative spirit began to transform the old world through developments such as new pottery styles, the first Olympic games, the composition of the Homeric poems, the Greek alphabet, the establishment of colonies, and especially the codification of laws and the institution of new forms of government, notably democracy.
Throughout these insightful lectures, you explore the contributions of many celebrated figures from this period such as these:
- Pisistratus, the benevolent Athenian dictator who practiced a peaceful foreign policy and encouraged the cultivation of olives to make and export olive oil—an industry that the area surrounding Athens continues to pursue
- Lycurgus, Sparta's mysterious lawgiver who (according to legend) instituted the city-state's rigorous and notorious system of military training
- Cleisthenes, a reformer who eased Athens's class strife through a radical reorganization of its citizen body and who is referred to by some as the father of democracy
- Ephialtes, who completed the political revolution begun by the lawgiver Solon and inaugurated radical democracy in Athens
- Pericles, the Athenian statesman and general who made Athens an imperial power and sparked the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War
- Philip II, the king who transformed Macedonia from a backwater into the era's foremost military power
- Alexander the Great, Philip's son and one of history's most renowned military figures, who furthered his father's imperial mission and conquered most of ancient Greece (and beyond) before his death
A Scholarly Detective Who Reevaluates Traditional Views
An expert in the Archaic period, Professor Worthington knows this period of history inside and out; his consummate knowledge of ancient Greece enriches every one of these in-depth lectures. What makes The Long Shadow of the Ancient Greek World such a refreshing look at this critical period in human history is that Professor Worthington is never shy about questioning received opinion. Throughout the course, he constantly pauses to reevaluate traditional views and employs the instincts of a detective to explore probing questions and issues:
- Was Dracon really draconian? A Wild West style of justice prevailed in Athens before the aristocrat Dracon took the first steps toward a rational legal system by making the administration of justice uniform. This progressive measure has been overshadowed, however, by Dracon's prescribed penalty of death for all crimes.
- When exactly did the Classical period begin? Many historians date the beginning of the Classical period with the start of the Persian Wars. Professor Worthington reveals, however, that Classical Greeks looked back on their victory in the Persian Wars as part of a bygone golden age, not as the prelude to their own strife-filled era.
- Was Cleon a bad strategist? The reputation of the politician and military leader Cleon has suffered at the hands of the historian Thucydides and the playwright Aristophanes. Professor Worthington argues that instead of being such a disaster for Athens during the Peloponnesian War, Cleon was correct in many of his assessments and acted in the city's best interest.
- Just what did Alexander the Great achieve? History has long viewed Alexander the Great as an icon of military skill and leadership. But Professor Worthington argues that the legends that glorify Alexander the Great obscure the truly great accomplishments of his father, King Philip II.
In addition, Professor Worthington continually questions and analyzes hallowed ancient historical sources. Comparing the historians Thucydides and Herodotus, he observes that "Thucydides never tells us his sources or his reasons for accepting or rejecting something, merely that he is right. Although Herodotus gets things wrong, he does cite his sources. … This allows us the chance to make up our own minds."
And in presenting his alternative interpretations of history, Professor Worthington invites you to make up your own mind, as well.
What You Owe to History
An important reason to study the history of Classical and Archaic Greece is that the world the Greeks represent—and which we inherited—so clearly hung by a thread at many points during its long and thrilling evolution. By the end of Professor Worthington's final captivating lecture, you discover that there was nothing inevitable about democracy, the Western concept of justice, or any of the other traditions and institutions that now play such central roles in the politics of the modern Western world.
While our current political institutions continue to grow stronger with time, it is essential to recognize that at one point, they were fragile and haphazard, their fate uncertain. As with many eventful tales, The Long Shadow of the Ancient Greek World's story of how this tentative structure transformed into the firm foundation of our contemporary world is gripping, enlightening, and immensely rewarding.