Changing Body Composition through Diet and Exercise [TTC Video]
27 July 2016, 15:57
Course No 1994 | MP4, AVC, 1280x720 | AAC, 192 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 9.12GB
If we don’t like what we see in the mirror or if we’re struggling to walk down to the corner store, we tend to think, “Wow, I really need to lose some weight!” But the truth is you might not need to lose weight. Are you surprised? What you really need to do is lose fat and gain muscle. That change will make you look better, feel better, and perform better—whether your bathroom scale tells you any weight is lost in the process or not. In fact, if you focus on simply losing weight as your only metric, you could potentially lose both fat and muscle, becoming weaker instead of stronger. How’s that going to help you walk a mile? If you change your body composition, you’ll see and feel the results you’ve been looking for!
But how to get started? Should you avoid red meat and eat only carbs? Avoid carbs and focus on healthy fats? Will 500 crunches a day turn that belly fat into a “six pack?” Or should you stick to cardio three times a week? New diet and fitness plans come at us daily in the popular press, on the radio, and from a plethora of TV personalities hawking the latest supplement or sports drink. In the library and bookstore, shelf after shelf of books point us down conflicting paths toward health and fitness.
This course is different. Changing Body Composition through Diet and Exercise presents the latest scientific research in the field of performance nutrition. From the macro to the molecular, this solid, science-based information will help you understand your own body better than you ever have. Professor Michael Ormsbee, Associate Professor and Interim Director of the Institute of Sports Sciences and Medicine in the College of Human Sciences at Florida State University, clearly explains in 24 in-depth lectures:
- how the food you eat is broken down and distributed to the tissues in your body
- how your body uses those nutrients to produce the energy you need to function and perform
- how specific nutrition and specific types of exercises can help you lose fat, gain muscle, and feel more energetic in your daily life or on the athletic field
Dr. Ormsbee is a former collegiate athlete, and current weight-lifter and triathlete whose fascination with human physiology is absolutely contagious. His easy-going style and excitement about this cutting-edge research make the technical material engaging and easy to follow. While the course provides a complete and comprehensive look at human bioenergetics and performance nutrition, each lecture is self-contained with easily accessible material. So whether you prefer the “A-Z” big-picture view or you want to start by dipping into information about supplements and set points, Changing Body Composition through Diet and Exercise will meet your needs—and help you meet your goals.
Based on his own laboratory results and those of his colleagues, Dr. Ormsbee presents diet and exercise recommendations in incremental steps that men and women of all ages and fitness levels can follow. Each lecture ends with one specific, easy-to-implement suggestion for your consideration. No gimmicks, no quick fixes, just real science.
What Happens to the Food You Eat?
You’ve just taken that first delicious bite of a blueberry muffin and the first sip of your coffee with a friend you haven’t seen in a while. While you’re focused on the conversation, your body is hard at work digesting your food, absorbing and partitioning the nutrients, and storing the waste for later removal. You’ll learn about:
- The three categories of macronutrients—carbohydrates, fats, and protein—and the enzymes that begin to break them down into usable nutrients from that first bite
- The chemical processes occurring in the 300-square-meter surface area of your small intestine, where the greatest percentage of nutrients are absorbed, and why your body requires distinctly different enzyme groups to break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids
- How the resulting molecules are partitioned throughout the body and ultimately affect the functionality of every microscopic process in every cell
- The ways in which your hormones such as insulin, cortisol, and catecholamines affect those processes
Which is More Important, Diet or Exercise? Now We Have an Answer
You know you need to exercise. And if you’ve been exercising for a while, you know it makes you feel good. But even if you’ve recently stepped up your exercise program, you might not be seeing the results you’ve been hoping for.
“The surprising truth is that simply exercising more and eating less is not the key for improving body composition,” Dr. Ormsbee says. “I know that’s what we’d been preaching for a long time. But it just doesn’t work all that well.”
What does work?
What works is understanding exactly how nutrients are partitioned and which type of exercise uses which source of energy in the body. You’ll learn about:
- The relationship between bioenergetics and metabolism
- The chemical processes that release stored energy to make it available for all functions of life
- Which sources of energy are used for high-intensity exercise, low-intensity exercise, and the work of maintaining our bodies while we’re at rest, e.g., breathing, regulating temperature, maintaining blood flow, etc.
- The caloric cost of exercise
- The way to best time our macronutrient intake relative to exercising for optimal performance and body composition
- Specific exercises for fat loss
- Specific exercises for increasing muscle mass
- Why exercise and food intake are critical for optimal body composition
But what about your friend who takes handfuls of vitamins, minerals, and protein supplements throughout the day? She says they’re important, but does the science back her up? What about artificial sweeteners, standing desks, or cleanse diets—are they helpful, harmful, or insignificant? You’ll learn the latest thinking on those topics and more, always based on rigorous scientific research. Equally importantly, if the research results are inconclusive, you’ll hear that, too. As Dr. Ormsbee explains, we certainly don’t have all the answers yet in this exciting new field.
Dr. Ormsbee concludes with some real-world advice for developing your individualized nutrition and exercise program and for sticking with it. What do studies tell us about the difference between those who only start a program and those who stick with it and reach their goals? The lessons presented in this course can change your life by helping you to feel better, perform better, and be healthier now and into your older years.
“Overall, the health benefits of exercise and eating right are clear,” Dr. Ormsbee says. “Think about it this way: If a pill existed that could provide even half the benefits of good nutrition and fitness, there’s no doubt it would be a best seller.”
Understanding Nonverbal Communication [TTC Video]
27 July 2016, 15:44
Course No 5937 | MP4, AVC, 1280x720 | AAC, 192 kbps, 2 Ch | 12x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 4.35GB
Posture. Eye contact and blinking. Gestures. Tone and pitch. Gait. Body type and clothing choices. How much of our communication is nonverbal? Many people have heard the claim that 93% of what we express is conveyed through nonverbal communication. After a study in the 1960s, this idea spread into mainstream thinking and changed the way we viewed and interpreted our interactions with others.
In Understanding Nonverbal Communication, you’ll discover that nonverbal communication is less intentional and harder to control than the words you choose to speak, and you are less aware of it than you are of your words, so it provides better clues to what you are feeling and thinking. You can deliberately decide what to say, but from the deeper subcortical regions of your brain come your involuntary nonverbal expressions, including changes in blood pressure, sweat, pupil dilation, increased heart rate, facial movements, or blushing cheeks—any of which can speak more about your intentions or emotions than your actual words might. In 12 revealing lectures, you’ll explore the history, evolution, and context of both the outright obvious and the sublimely subtle nuances of personal expression.
Interestingly, the 93% statistic mentioned above is not accurate—it’s impossible to truly quantify every nuance of nonverbal communication. Regardless, what made this study so important was the revelation that recognizing and correctly interpreting nonverbal expressions is essential to fully understanding how people communicate. Once begun, the study of nonverbal communication was embraced by psychologists, communication scientists, sociologists, anthropologists, ethologists, biologists, and even political scientists and economists. The science of nonverbal communication has revealed intriguing insights into everything from how aspects of your reactions are biologically hardwired to how you are subconsciously influenced to vote by political speakers, and even to predicting relationship status—whether people are attracted to each other and the likelihood that they will stay together.
Throughout this course, you will explore the role of nonverbal communication as it relates to understanding other people’s worldviews and interaction styles. With careful observation, you can capitalize on this science to further appreciate human expression, smooth social interactions, and strengthen relationships—helping to make the world a better and more accepting place.
There is certainly no lack of resources for information about nonverbal communication; however, very little of what you will come across is based on systematic studies. This course will view the scope of nonverbal communication through the lens of science, led by Dr. Mark Frank, Professor and Department Chair of the Department of Communication and the Director of the Communication Science Center at the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York. From what you choose to wear to how fast you walk, you’re consciously and unconsciously sending messages about yourself, your beliefs, and your personality, and we are consciously and unconsciously receiving these signals and making assumptions about you. This course provides the scientific analysis of the message being sent and how it is received.
Nonverbal Communication: Vital to Survival
One of the most fascinating aspects of this course is the in-depth research Dr. Frank reveals around the biological and anthropological aspects of nonverbal communication. He demonstrates how our endurance as a species can be directly tied to how our ability to present our intentions has evolved.
Like many other animals, we primarily live in social groups. Dogs live in packs, elephants in herds, and chimpanzees and bonobos—our closest relatives—are very social animals. None of these animals speak, yet they can communicate about danger, social status, friendliness, and so forth. Further, scientists have found that the throat anatomy of the skeletons of non-Homo sapiens suggests that some human ancestors were not capable of articulate speech, either. The anatomy of early human remains demonstrates a lack, or alternative location, of the hyoid bone, making the larynx (our voice box) so small that speech was rendered impossible. Our ancestors’ throats resembled those of chimpanzees, and scientists have demonstrated that you cannot teach a chimp to “speak” beyond a limited number of sounds. Our ancestors, as early as 100,000-200,000 years ago, were strictly nonverbal creatures. Because that is not a large time frame on an evolutionary scale, scientists believe this is why the nonverbal parts of our communication are still with us.
The most common human expressions are a result of our drive to demonstrate our intent so others can coordinate similarly appropriate reactions. The emotions conveyed in our facial expressions and body language can indicate that we want to prevent conflict or initiate it, demonstrate hierarchy, signal danger, invite others to approach, or ask for help. The following basic emotions are communicated most strongly through our faces, and to a lesser degree in our voices:
- Anger – signals attack; allows others to back off and prevent conflict
- Contempt – signals status; groups with clear status hierarchies are more stable
- Disgust – signals bad food; shows others what not to eat
- Fear – signals danger; others can see and adjust their behavior accordingly
- Happy or enjoyment – signals approachability
- Sad or distress- signals something is wrong, needs attention
- Surprise – signals something novel, trains attention to figure out what it is
The particular pattern of these expressions is universal across all human beings. Even our most base instincts are illustrated with nonverbal communication: When presented with a challenge, a simple facial expression or change in posture and stance can let our friends and foes know if we are about to fight due to anger or take flight due to fear. Nonverbal communication is thus essential to survival—survival of the individual and survival of the group.
The Human Lie Detector Is A Lie
Many people have high levels of confidence in their abilities to read other people. We understand that others can say what they will about what they think or feel, but we often scrutinize them and observe the subtleties in their behavior for clues that may tell us what’s really going on. If you’ve ever watched a high-stakes poker game, you may see the players analyzing each other’s expressions and nervous tics for “tells” about whether they have good hands or they are bluffing. And, in fact, one of the most common reasons people try to read each other is to determine sincerity. Is it true that everybody lies? Alas, yes. Studies have shown that we all tend to tell 1-2 lies every day. Dr. Frank jokes that 99% of people have admitted to telling a lie, and the remaining 1% are liars.
With the plethora of TV shows about human lie detectors, many people consider themselves experts in being able to read a person who is not being truthful. Sadly, those shows are mostly fictional as well, and Dr. Frank is a perfect expert to debunk these myths. His work has examined the behaviors associated with real versus falsified emotions, behaviors that occur when people lie, and the factors that make people better or worse judges of emotion and deception. His work has been funded by The National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the intelligence community. He has published numerous research papers analyzing deception, facial expressions, emotion, and violence in real-world contexts. He has also coedited two books on the subject. An outstanding expert in this field, his conclusion is that there is no behavior that guarantees that a person is lying.
One of the reasons for this is that nonverbal communication consists of a variety of different signals emanating from the face, the eyes, the movements of the shoulders, the hands, the fingers, the body, the voice tone, and the speaking style. Trying to capture this in a single test is quite difficult. Furthermore, every person is unique, and signs associated with telling a lie will manifest differently from person to person. Some may sweat, others may not maintain eye contact, or the eyes will roll a certain direction, or they will blink excessively, and still others may have verbal tics such as stuttering or babbling. However, when lying, a different set of people may relay a story with a calm and collected demeanor, they may maintain perfect eye contact, and they may tell a concise and short story, avoiding as many extra words as possible. All of these behaviors can be signs of other things besides lying, such as thinking on one’s feet, and are not guaranteed proof that a person is lying.
Even if you were to focus on just the facial expression, accurate and generalizable analysis is a daunting task to perfect. Darwin undertook one of the earliest attempts to study this facet of social science in the late 1800s. Since then, there have been over 100 studies examining the ability of people to judge others’ emotions from facial expressions. When it comes to recognizing the basic facial expressions such as anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, scientist find that people tend to recognize the correct emotion at rates greater than 80%. But when it comes to recognizing deceit, we will never be perfect, because all of the mechanisms that we employ to conceal, fabricate, or feel can happen for reasons other than lying.
The Global Benefits of Understanding Nonverbal Communication
Being able to read people better has all sorts of advantages beyond just confirming truth. Research shows that those who are better at reading others are able to maintain more harmonious relationships. They often receive better evaluations from their supervisors in the workplace. Salespeople who can read their customers better get more sales. Police officers who are better at reading people get more confessions that are upheld in court. Reading nonverbal communication gives you the ability to anticipate problems, and thus adjust your behaviors to head those minor problems off before they turn into major problems.
There are a number of simple tools you’ll learn from Dr. Frank that can help you improve your ability to interpret nonverbal communication. For example, observe your interpersonal relationships, and those of others. You will be surprised what you see when you simply look and listen, without speaking. Dr. Frank notes that Yogi Berra said it best: “You can observe a lot by watching.”
Dr. Frank is careful to point out there is no magic technique that will allow you to know everything a person is thinking just by their expression. Add to this is the dilemma that people around the world just do things differently. Avoiding eye contact is considered rude in many Western cultures, while it’s considered rude to make eye contact in some Eastern cultures. In some societies, shaking your head from side to side means yes, while nodding your head up and down means no. As George H. W. Bush unfortunately learned in 1992, a hand gesture meaning peace in the U.S., when turned around, is an obscene gesture in Australia. Different cultures have different rules to regulate their nonverbal communication. Because many of our nonverbal reactions are so automatic and done without thinking, we tend to believe that the rules that regulate the nonverbal communication we use are normal. Deviations from those rules result in us feeling lost and very self-conscious, as well as suspicious of those who violate those rules.
Despite the many cultural differences between people across the world, the reality is that when it comes to basic communication, we are all really much more similar than we are different. We have an evolutionary, built-in common platform for understanding in our feelings and our emotions. We share a wonderful biological-psychological legacy that lives in us today. By understanding our shared heritage and learning how to better interpret nonverbal communication, you have a launching point for shared understanding, cooperation, and kindness—all of which results in a better world for us all.
At the conclusion of this course, you’ll come to realize that the “invisible” world of nonverbal communication was always visible to you. After learning how to read the signals and understanding how they have come about, you will be armed with the knowledge and skills to recognize and analyze it. And, as Dr. Frank emphasizes again and again, when you understand nonverbal communication, you understand people.
Turning Points in Middle Eastern History [TTC Video]
27 July 2016, 15:23
Course No 8340 | M4V, AVC, 663 kbps, 852x480 | AAC, 160 kbps, 2 Ch | 36x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 5.39GB
The Middle East is a critically important area of our world. And, with its current prominence in international affairs, media images of the Middle East reach us on a daily basis.
Much media coverage, however, is incomplete at best, failing to take account of either the complexities or the historical background of this pivotal region. For most of us, the real story of the Middle East remains untold. What made this crucial geopolitical area what it is today? What forces and factors underlie what we read in the news, and what drives the current challenges the Middle East both faces and poses? In coming to terms with the present and future of the Middle East, an understanding of its history is not only highly valuable, but essential.
Consider these revealing matters, which bring historical perspective to current events:
- Much popular thought regards the Muslim world as irrevocably separate from and opposed to the West. To the contrary, history shows a spectrum of mutually beneficial alliances between European and Middle Eastern states.
- Islam began on the Arabian peninsula. The political capital moved to Damascus, and in the 8th century, Baghdad was built to be its new capital. These developments broadened the cultural and political perspective of Islam from an Arab worldview to include the heterogeneous Muslim world.
- For thousands of years, the Middle East has been a crossroads of continents, trade, and conquest. Its centrality and diversity have brought material wealth, cultural treasures, and a tremendous exchange of knowledge—and have sparked conflicts leading to political instability and warfare.
Now, Turning Points in Middle Eastern History offers you a penetrating look at the fascinating and thoroughly remarkable past of this storied part of the world. Taught by professorial lecturer and Middle East expert Eamonn Gearon of Johns Hopkins University, these 36 lectures unfurl a breathtaking panorama of history, exploring a 1,300-year window from the rise of the warrior prophet Muhammad to the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The history you’ll discover here is as dazzling as anything in the Arabian Nights, and is all the more astonishing for being the true story of the Middle East.
Each lecture focuses on a specific historical moment that changed the direction of events or the narrative of history. By investigating these momentous happenings that have most significantly shaped the Middle East and its diverse societies, you’ll gain a deeply informed understanding of how the past informs the present.
Turning Points: Radical Breaks with the Past
In this riveting inquiry, you’ll witness world-changing occurrences such as the birth and phenomenal rise of Islam, the expansion and decline of the Ottoman Empire, and the dramatic discovery of Middle Eastern oil. You’ll accompany the armies of Islam as they invade North Africa and Spain, forever altering civilization in those regions, and witness the Battle of Karbala, where Muhammad’s heirs—the Sunni and Shia—split once and for all.
In the course’s middle section, you’ll discover the wonders of the Islamic Golden Age, and marvel at the superlative advances in astronomy, mathematics, medicine, and literature—and the preservation of classical Greek and Roman wisdom—that unfolded in global centers of learning such as Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordoba.
You’ll follow the dynamic empire building of the Persian Safavids, the Egyptian Mamluks, and the legendary Ottomans, among others. The breakup of the Ottoman Empire yielded most of the modern states of the Middle East. The far-reaching impacts of its rise and fall, plus the long-lasting influence of the 18th-century Saud-Wahhab Pact—between a desert ruler and a religious reformer, creating today’s Kingdom of Saudi Arabia—are two more expressions of how the past suffuses the present.
Throughout the course, you’ll rub shoulders with numerous remarkable people, including the brilliant and famously chivalrous Muslim general Saladin; Shajar ad-Durr, the only female sultan in Islamic history to rule in her own right; and the dashing Lawrence of Arabia, a key player at the birth of Middle Eastern nationalism.
Unforgettable Historic Moments
Within the narrative of the course, you’ll explore extraordinary happenings that critically shaped Middle Eastern civilization, such as these:
- Conquests of the Umayyad caliphate: In a seminal moment in Middle Eastern history, learn how the powerful Umayyad family of Mecca seized the office of the caliphate (the official leadership of Islam), transferred the temporal center of the faith to Damascus in 661, and molded the religiously inspired Arab-Islamic empire into a politically oriented imperial power.
- The glory that was Baghdad: Study the 8th-century founding of Baghdad as the spectacular seat of the Abbasid Empire. Learn how the city became an architectural wonder and the intellectual and scientific capital of the world, whose House of Knowledge was one of the greatest seats of learning in human history.
- The empire of the Mamluks: Track the remarkable exploits of the Mamluks, a class of slave warriors that became emperors, instituted a system of personal advancement based on merit, defeated the “invincible” Mongols on the field of battle, and ruled Egypt across nearly six centuries.
- The scholarship of Ibn Khaldun: Contemplate the monumental achievements of the 14th-century scholar, historian, and philosopher Ibn Khaldun, who penned a philosophy of history of unparalleled significance and gave birth to the fields of economics, sociology, and historiography.
- Triumph and disaster at the Suez Canal: Assess the international intrigue and the epic feat of engineering that created the Suez Canal, changing the course of global trade. Grasp the contours of the economic fiasco surrounding the canal’s building that cost Egypt control of its economy and government.
- The making of the modern Middle East: Learn about the remapping of the Middle East following World War I by the imperial powers of Britain and France, and the divisive impact these changes had on the region. Follow the emergence of the modern Arab states and the advent of Arab nationalism.
Amid the catalytic events you’ll study, these astounding human beings were emblematic of the turmoil and the victories of their times:
- Fatima al-Fihri, educational visionary: Witness the radical move, by a forward-thinking Muslim woman, to create the world’s first university—making available advanced education beyond religious instruction, 200 years before Europe’s first university.
- The titanic intellectual al-Ghazali: Considered the most historically impactful Muslim after Muhammad, take the measure of Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, an Islamic theologian and philosopher of comparable significance to St. Augustine and Thomas Aquinas in the Christian tradition.
- Mansa Musa, the golden emperor: Travel with the richest man who ever lived—the 14th-century emperor Musa of Timbuktu—on his historic hajj to Mecca. Trace how his massive personal spending of gold ruined the economy of Egypt, and how he subsequently founded one of history’s most important archives of ancient wisdom.
- Suleiman the Magnificent, architect of empire: Enter the glittering world of the Ottoman emperor Suleiman, who expanded and formalized rule over an empire that spanned three continents, and whose remarkable legislative, bureaucratic and architectural achievements guaranteed the empire’s vitality for centuries.
- Abd al-Qadir, humane resister: Within the horrific bloodshed of the 1830 French invasion of Algeria, learn about the scholarly and deeply religious leader of the war of opposition, Abd al-Qadir, whose extraordinary, compassionate treatment of his Christian opponents stands as a model of equitable leadership for any century.
Compelling Perspectives on a Pivotal Region
A spellbinding lecturer, Mr. Gearon brings to the course deep insights into the Middle East shaped by his extensive personal experience in the region. He has a talent for demonstrating how history doesn’t stop, showing you how events such as the founding of the Persian Safavid Dynasty and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire continue to reverberate in our contemporary world. Throughout the course, he brings visual richness to the unfolding events through vivid maps, artworks, photographs, and manuscripts.
The 36 thrilling segments of Turning Points in Middle Eastern History bring to vibrant life the human strivings, the conflicts, the triumphs, and the catastrophes that forged this extraordinary region, in a dramatic continuum from the 7th century to the 21st. Take this chance to probe beneath the surface of the magnificent and complex civilizations of the Middle East, a critical part of the world whose fortunes directly affect us all.