Great Music of the Twentieth Century [TTC Video]
12 April 2018, 15:09
Course No 7006 | M4V, AVC, 640x360 | AAC, 160 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x45 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 3.88GB
The 20th century was a breeding ground of musical exploration, innovation, and transformation unlike any other era in history. Breaking with the traditions of the past, early 20th-century composers upended the old order of concert music, igniting both passionate admiration and white-hot controversy with works such as Claude Debussy’s Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, whose ethereal, otherworldly sonic textures initiated musical modernism; and Igor Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring, whose jarring primitivism and the near-riot of its premiere are the stuff of musical legend.
But these were only the tip of a monumental iceberg—the beginning of an explosion of new musical languages and syntaxes that would last for the entire century, ranging from the non-tonality of Arnold Schoenberg and the individualist vision of Charles Ives to the the stylistic synthesis of Béla Bartók, the ultraserialism of Milton Babbitt, and the remarkable eclecticism of Henry Cowell.
As always in music history, these artistic currents directly reflected changes in the world at large, as composers responded to the upheavals, dislocations, paradigm shifts, world wars, globalism, and other momentous happenings that the century brought—creating masterworks that rank among history’s greatest moments of musical expression.
And yet, parallel with these transformations came the perception—which echoes to this day—that the new music could be difficult, challenging to grasp, and at times simply unintelligible—all of which figured within tumultuous and unending debates about what music should or could be.
Now, speaking to these extraordinary and galvanizing events, Great Courses favorite Professor Robert Greenberg of San Francisco Performances returns with one of his most provocative, most compelling, and most rewarding courses ever. In Great Music of the 20th Century, Professor Greenberg unfurls a huge spectrum of new works and material that have not been covered in depth in previous courses. Ranging across the 20th century in its entirety, these 24 lectures present a musical cornucopia of astonishing dimensions—a major presentation and exploration of the incredible brilliance and diversity of musical art across a turbulent century.
Discover a Breathtaking Epoch in Western Music
Taking a chronological approach, the course explores the fascinating gamut of 20th-century musical “isms,” from impressionism and fauvism to serialism, stochasticism, ultraserialism, neo-classicism, neo-tonalism, and minimalism, as well as the inclusivity and synthesis within concert music that embraced Western historical styles, folk and popular music, jazz, rock, Asian, Latin American, and other influences in the service of heightened expression. Through the panoramic view of the course, you’ll discover the genius of composers such as Webern, Antheil, Stockhausen, Bernstein, Takamitsu, and many others.
From the very first lecture, Professor Greenberg tackles the bugbear of 20th-century concert music directly, showing with remarkable clarity what these composers were up to, how to understand their compositional processes and visions, and how to appreciate and enjoy the sublime music this century produced.
For those familiar with Professor Greenberg’s previous courses, these lectures present a new approach to the musical excerpts themselves, and one that is aligned with the way people access music in the 21st century. Instead of playing musical excerpts within the lectures, Professor Greenberg provides easily accessible online resources to complete performances of all the works discussed, allowing you to explore them in their entirety, either while listening to the lectures, separately, or both. This approach offers the benefits of easy access to full performances of the works, plus a full 45 minutes of Professor Greenberg’s celebrated teaching and commentary in each lecture.
Grasp the Passionate Ideals and Groundbreaking Methods of Musical Modernism
Early in the course, you’ll delve into the historical, sociological, and psychological factors that underlay early 20th-century composers’ abandonment of musical tradition. In clear, accessible terms, you’ll learn about the trailblazing compositional approaches of the century’s great composers, and what motivated them, in cases such as:
- The Astounding Journey of Igor Stravinsky—Follow the trajectory of the 20th century’s most integrally influential composer, from his legendary “fauvist” scores for the Ballets Russes and his unexpected turn as a neoclassicist to his constant, lifelong experimentation and self-reinvention. Study Stravinsky’s rich range of masterpieces, including his iconic Pulcinella, his Symphony in Three Movements,and his career-capping Requiem Canticles.
- Beyond Tonality: The Legacy of Arnold Schoenberg—Learn the dramatic story of Schoenberg’s “emancipation” from traditional musical tonality, and his magisterial non-tonal and serial or “12-tone” works. Take account of the searing controversy surrounding his compositions and methodology, and his imprint on a lineage of brilliant composers. Experience landmark works, such as his masterful Pierrot Lunaire, Variations for Orchestra, and Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte.
- America’s Kaleidoscopic Offering to New Music—Across the span of the course, learn how 20th-century U.S. composers broke new ground in numerous and ingenious ways. Witness how American musical minds introduced jazz and popular idioms into concert music, created alternate tonal systems and musical instruments, pioneered electronic music, incorporated non-Western musical languages, and gave birth to genres such as minimalism.
- Ultraserialism and Its Backlash—Observe how a cadre of post-World War II composers sought to distance themselves from the mindset of fascism, ironically producing intellectualized music which audiences found difficult or impossible to listen to. Also note the counter-reaction that spurred other spirits to seek new expressive means, leading composers such as Iannis Xenakis and György Ligeti to create “sound mass” music of stunning beauty.
- Spanning the World: Globalism in Concert Music—Learn how concert music in the second half of the 20th century saw an unprecedented meeting of world cultures. Hear the inspired infusion of Indian, Indonesian, Chinese, and Native American musical forms in the music of composers such as Lou Harrison and Henry Cowell. Discover the fusion of Western and East Asian sensibilities in the works of Isang Yun (Korea) and Chinery Ung (Cambodia).
- A Multiplicity of Riches: Musical Pluralism—Grasp how the challenge for late 20th-century composers became the question of how to make use of the vast array of available musical languages, not only from 1,000 years of Western history, but from every culture across the world. Hear the amazing synthesis of musical forms in the brilliant works of Heitor Villa-Lobos, Luciano Berio, Aaron Jay Kernis, and Thomas Adès.
In his characteristic style, Professor Greenberg brings to each lecture a far-reaching and thoroughly absorbing historical context—delving into the circumstances that surrounded the writing of many key works, and showing how 20th-century composers responded to historical, socio-cultural, and personal events in their music. You’ll witness how the music of Béla Bartók was shaped by Hungarian nationalism; how devastating wartime experiences changed the music of Olivier Messiaen and Karlheinz Stockhausen; how Hindu aesthetics and Zen Buddhism influenced the “indeterminate” music of John Cage; and how a deeply personal event affected Arnold Schoenberg’s final break with Western tonality.
Experience the Genius and Dazzling Diversity of the Century’s Greatest Masterworks
Far more than simply a course of lectures, Great Music of the 20th Century comprises a huge and many-sided resource for discovering the endless riches of 20th-century concert music across the globe. The phenomenal range of genres and composers covered and the wealth of suggestions for specific works make this a reference that could easily inspire years of musical exploration and glorious listening. As just a tiny sampling, you’ll learn about majestic works such as:
- Alban Berg’s great Piano Sonata Op. 1 of 1909;
- Carlos Chávez’s invocation of native Mexican music in his Sinfonía India (1936);
- Elliott Carter’s polyphonic String Quartet No.2 (1959);
- George Crumb’s deeply poetic Ancient Voices of Children (1970);
- Luigi Nono’s grand-scale Prometeo (1984), a haunting meditation on the myth of Prometheus; and
- Jennifer Higdon’s luminous, expansive Blue Cathedral (1999).
As always, Professor Greenberg speaks with a composer’s intimate understanding of the act of musical creation, and with profound insight into his subjects’ thinking and creative processes. And, after 28 courses and over 600 individual lectures for The Great Courses, Professor Greenberg talks about his own music for the first time—ending the course with a memorable, firsthand account of one celebrated composer’s journey through this remarkable era.
Great Music of the 20th Century opens the door to an extraordinary spectrum of contemporary masterpieces that await discovery and deep listening. Within these unique and riveting lectures, Professor Greenberg offers you the keys to understanding and deep enjoyment of a revolutionary, visionary, and magnificent era in music. In Great Music of the 20th Century, you’ll experience the living, evolving, and superlative musical art that so vividly and unforgettably speaks to the life of our times.
Why You Are Who You Are: Investigations into Human Personality [TTC Video]
08 March 2018, 21:37
Course No 1648 | MP4, AVC, 960x540 | AAC, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 8.22GB
Why does a simple incident like a traffic jam affect you the way it does? What makes you act the way you do around your friends and family? Why do you often see the world so differently from the way other people see it? The answer to these questions and more really comes down to one thing: your personality.
Wherever you go in life, you carry with you a large, complex set of traits, beliefs, emotional tendencies, motivations, and values that predispose you to respond to the world in certain ways. Some of these you share with virtually all other human beings; they’re part of human nature. Others, however, differ greatly between one person and another, and they help create the kind of person you are—and the kind of life you lead.
- Are you outgoing and highly social, or quiet and more inclined to spend time alone?
- Do you consider yourself organized or disorganized?
- Do you have more energy in the mornings or in the evenings?
- How much self-control would you say you have?
To understand the roots of personality is to understand motivations and influences that shape behavior, which in turn reflect how you deal with the opportunities and challenges of everyday life. Exploring the science of personality is also a chance to gain new insights that might help you better understand both yourself and the other people around you.
According to award-winning Professor Mark R. Leary of Duke University, “the quality of our lives depends in part on how well we can figure out what’s going on with other people.” And that’s the focus of his intriguing 24-lecture course, Why You Are Who You Are: Investigations into Human Personality, in which you examine the differences in people’s personalities, where these differences come from, and how they shape our everyday lives. Drawing on research in psychology, neuroscience, and genetics, Professor Leary opens the door to understanding how personality works and why. Designed as a fascinating, accessible scientific inquiry, these lectures will have you thinking about personality—your own, and that of the people around you—in a way that’s more informed and that reveals what makes you the kind of person that you are.
What Makes a Personality?
We currently understand more about how our brains work than we ever have before. But understanding personality requires more than knowing what goes on in the brain. Combining information gleaned from psychology, neuroscience, and genetics, Why You Are Who You Are will open your eyes to the myriad ways our traits, emotions, beliefs, values, and behaviors are shaped by many different influences, including the genes were inherited, how we were raised, our environment, early evolutionary processes, and more.
Professor Leary has two overarching goals for Why You Are Who You Are:
- Understanding personality characteristics. You’ll learn about the most important personality variables that make people different from one another. These characteristics help to account for the variability we see among people—those traits, motives, values, beliefs, and emotional tendencies that make you, you.
- Exploring the roots of personality. Why do people end up with the personalities they have? To answer this question, multiple lectures reveal where these personality characteristics come from. You’ll start with the basic biological processes that underlie personality, then go on to the roles played by culture, learning, environment, and personal experiences.
Throughout Professor Leary’s illuminating lectures, five important personality traits come into focus, traits that form the foundation of how psychologists and neuroscientists approach the topic of personality:
- Extraversion. The central characteristic of this trait is sociability. People high in extraversion tend to be more gregarious and enjoy large social gatherings. (They also find it difficult to go for a long time without other people to talk to.)
- Neuroticism. People higher in neuroticism tend to experience negative emotions that are more intense and long-lasting, including anxiety, sadness, anger, guilt, and regret. Some researchers call this trait “negative emotionality.”
- Agreeableness. This trait involves the degree to which people generally have a positive or negative orientation toward others. At the low end are people who are unpleasant and hostile; at the high end are people who tend to be kind and sympathetic.
- Conscientiousness. To what degree are you responsible and dependable? Conscientiousness comes down to whether or not you usually do what you should. Conscientious people are organized and hard-working, and exercise good self-control.
- Openness. The last of the “big five” personality traits, openness reflects the degree to which people are open to new experiences and receptive to new ideas.
Why Do You Act the Way You Do?
Professor Leary expands on notions you may be familiar with (such as the nature-versus-nurture debate), shatters some commonly held myths (that self-esteem causes people to be successful and happy), and introduces you to some of the problems psychologists and other behavioral scientists obsess over as they try to understand personality (such as disentangling the vast variety of biological, social, and psychological processes that affect personality).
Here are just a few of the many ideas and topics you’ll probe throughout the lectures:
- Some aspects of your personality are situation-specific, meaning you consistently behave the same way in the same sorts of situations—but you don’t necessarily behave consistently across different situations.
- The fact that much of our personality operates outside our awareness, and that we can never be privy to these nonconscious influences, explains why it’s often so hard to change our behavior.
- Two foundations of moral judgments—whether or not an action helps or harms another person and whether or not an action involves fairness—are nearly universal across cultures.
- While people can change throughout their lives, in general, personality becomes more stable as people get older (with stability peaking somewhere between age 55 and 65).
An Engaging, Accessible Investigation
Throughout his career, Professor Leary has studied and explored the science behind our emotions, behaviors, and self-views. The author of 14 books and more than 200 scholarly articles and chapters, he has a breadth of experience he brings to every minute of Why You Are Who You Are. Throughout this course, you’ll find yourself in the company of an expert who doesn’t just know the complex science about personality—but who knows how to explain it to you in a way that makes sense.
“Sometimes, it’s really hard to see a difficult person’s redeeming qualities, no matter how hard we try,” Professor Leary says. “But the fact is, whether or not it really ‘takes all kinds,’ they’re all here anyway—us included. And the more we know about all these different kinds of people, including ourselves, the better off we’ll all be.”
The overarching goal of Why You Are Who You Are is to present the concept of personality as a vast, fascinating spectrum that offers a host of different perspectives on the nature and causes of our individual experiences of the world.
Life in the World's Oceans [TTC Video]
20 February 2018, 09:03
Course No 1725 | M4V, AVC, 640x360 | AAC, 160 kbps, 2 Ch | 30x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 3.44GB
For thousands of centuries, humans lived near the ocean, wandered right up to its edge, and turned back to the relative safety of the known land. Even when we invented ships and the very bravest among us sailed out, our fears and imaginations took over. What creatures could be living in the unknowable darkness, the bottomless depths? Giant worms, microorganisms that eat metal, faceless fish, giant sea spiders? Marine life is even more otherworldly and fantastical than we ever imagined, and Life in the World’s Oceans brings you face to face with these exciting creatures. From the phytoplankton that can only float at the whim of wind and currents to the gray whale that migrates 16,000 kilometers each year, you will be amazed at the variety of life in the seas and what we have only recently learned about its biology, evolution, life cycles, and adaptations.
The Great Courses has partnered with the Smithsonian to produce a vivid exploration of life in this fascinating space—the environment that accounts for 99 percent of Earth’s habitable space. With curatorial expertise, content development, and stunning still and video imagery provided by Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History, you’ll understand our planet’s ocean environment and the life it supports as you never have before.
Working in close consultation with Don Wilson, curator Emeritus from the Smithsonian Natural History Museum, Professor Sean K. Todd of the College of the Atlantic—and one of the world’s leading marine biologists—developed 30 fascinating lectures that take you on a journey from the beginning of life on Earth four billion years ago to the environmental factors and international treaties and protocols that affect our oceans today. With an easygoing manner and an infectious passion for his topic, Professor Todd shares the latest research from the field's most fascinating areas of study, including marine-mammal intelligence and communication, bioluminescence, exploration of the ocean floor, as well as the Smithsonian’s own cutting-edge research work around the world, including the Great Barrier Reef.
Phytoplankton: Carrying the Weight of Ocean Life—and Us
Professor Todd starts your ocean journey at the very beginning, with the wonders of water and a fascinating look at the specific properties that make this unique molecule the essential ingredient for life. You’ll learn how life itself was ignited in this environment, eventually evolving into the phytoplankton that help keep us alive today, providing about 50 percent of all atmospheric oxygen. This phytoplankton—primarily free-floating, photosynthetic, and microscopic algae; and protists and prokaryotes—is the base of almost every marine food web. In fact, the largest animal ever known to have existed on earth, the 200-ton blue whale, sustains itself throughout an 80- to 90-year lifespan by eating only krill, which itself feeds directly on phytoplankton. With each blue whale requiring four tons of krill per day, it’s easy to see the critical link between a healthy phytoplankton population and whale viability.
Professor Todd also explains how research with new technology has recently reversed more than one common “truth” about marine life. DNA analysis has revealed new relationships between lifeforms and resulted in major taxonomic changes. And high-tech submersibles have allowed biologists to explore the deepest ocean floor, revealing a pathway to life in the absence of sunlight. Only recently have scientists learned that bacteria and other organisms use the hot, metal-rich fluids released by hydrothermal vents to turn chemical energy into food. That energy then fuels species of snails, shrimp, giant tube worms, and others that have evolved to thrive in these aphotic ecosystems.
And if snails, shrimp, and giant tube worms are not enough to peak your interest, the unforgettably dramatic images provided through this course give you access into the depths of the oceans, grant you up-close-and-personal encounters with charming marine mammals, and allow insights into the exhibits of Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History that you wouldn’t get without being there—from the fossils of red alga to the giant skeleton of a Basilosaurus in the Sant Ocean Hall.
Those Charismatic Marine Mammals
Life in the World’s Oceans provides a fascinating view into the complex lives of marine mammals, enhanced by stunning visual resources from the Smithsonian. Professor Todd shares his own exciting research and field experience with marine mammals to help respond to the most commonly asked questions about their intelligence.
In this course, you’ll learn that:
- Some marine mammals use tools. Sea otters and one population of bottlenose dolphins, for example, use rocks and sponges, respectively, to acquire food while protecting their skin.
- Some groups of humpback whales exhibit a feeding method that is not genetic, but is a learned, cultural behavior. Known as bubble-net feeding, it requires planning, cooperation, and communication among groups of these usually solitary animals.
- In their attempt to attract a mate, humpback whales compose lengthy songs and transmit them across the entire population of breeding males for that region. And as the song slowly morphs over the course of the season, all the males adopt those changes, presumably learning from each other.
- In the 1980s, a researcher noticed a humpback whale in the Gulf of Maine exhibiting a feeding behavior never recorded and named it lobtail feeding. Within ten years, the percentage of humpbacks seen using this technique went from zero to 50 percent, clear evidence of cultural transmission between individuals.
- Bottlenose dolphins, orcas, and false killer whales appear capable of recognizing their image in a mirror. This is an extremely rare ability among animals, and indicates that some marine mammals could be “self-aware.”
Based on these observations and additional exciting research, you’ll learn exactly why Professor Todd concludes that these magnificent animals are indeed intelligent, communicative, and “accomplished” in their own environment to meet their own needs.
The Future of the Oceans
Given the size of the ocean, it’s understandable that humans believed it would be an inexhaustible resource, capable of diluting anything we threw its way. As Professor Todd leads you through the underwater wonders, he also focuses on the history and evolution of the vast entity. You’ll learn how the industrial revolution brought new, unforeseen technologies that possessed the ability to severely impact our environment. Climate change, acidification, and overfishing affect marine populations around the globe. During a relatively short period of time, we “fished” various sea life almost to extinction in the northern Atlantic, including the right whale, California sardines, several species of tuna, Chilean sea bass, and many more. As Professor Todd introduces you to various types of marine life, he also shares which ones are still facing great risks. Even today, many species of albatross, sharks, and sea turtles are in danger of becoming nonexistent.
One of the most important lessons Professor Todd shares in Life in the World’s Oceans is why it’s so important to consider the ocean environment as an entire system. Professor Todd’s passion for preserving the precious resource of the world’s oceans—and the diversity of life within them—is another area where the educational mission and research aims of the Smithsonian were a perfect match. Professor Todd demonstrates the value of using our resources and conservation efforts to protect the ocean environment itself, as opposed to addressing the plight of any species. Professor Todd explains that with a clean, healthy ocean environment, the plants and animals will be able to take care of themselves, just as they have evolved to do. Even more importantly, a healthy ocean will provide resources for continued human survival and success, from food to energy to the oxygen we need for life itself.
Swimming with dolphins, talking to whales, touring the barrier reef, plunging the depths of the seas—these are experiences that very few of us get to share. With Life in the World’s Oceans and the Smithsonian, you get an unprecedented chance to get up close and personal with the underwater world, so you can better understand and appreciate the magnificence of that environment.