Passions: Philosophy and the Intelligence of Emotions [TTC Video]
21 November 2016, 21:04
Course No 4123 | AVI, XviD, 544x384 | MP3, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x30 mins | 7.02GB
Fear, joy, grief, love, hate, pride, shame. We all have emotions, and we recognize emotions in others. But do we really understand what emotions are and what they signify? It is remarkable how often we are wrong about our own emotions and misread the emotions of others. We also deceive ourselves about their meaning. The more we puzzle over the nature of emotions, the deeper the mystery becomes. It is a mystery that is by no means solved, but one that repays careful, philosophical analysis.
Far from being routine, emotions are "the key to the meaning of life," says distinguished philosopher and author Robert C. Solomon, who in these 24 lectures takes you on a tour of his more than three-decade-long intellectual struggle to reach an understanding of these complex phenomena. Some of his conclusions are surprising and very much against the current of common sense.
Professor Solomon's lectures unfold as a rich dialogue with other philosophers, including Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, Descartes, Adam Smith, Nietzsche, William James, Freud, Heidegger, and Sartre. He also relates these views to contemporary work in the cognitive sciences on emotions, notably research by Antonio Damasio, Joseph LeDoux, and Paul Ekman. And he discusses the portrayal of emotions in writers and artists including Homer, Shakespeare, Melville, Dostoevsky, and Picasso.
Emotions Have Intelligence
By probing the ideas of these and other thinkers and presenting his own views, Professor Solomon will lead you to a remarkable conclusion: Emotions have intelligence and provide personal strategies that are vitally important to our everyday lives of perceiving, evaluating, appraising, understanding, and acting in the world.
This idea runs counter to the widespread view that draws a sharp distinction between the emotional and the rational and views the emotions as inferior, disruptive, primitive, and even bestial forces. For Professor Solomon, many emotions are distinctively human and they are far more complicated than mere "feelings." They are rational judgments—sophisticated strategies for survival.
In exploring the multifaceted nature of emotions you will address questions such as:
- How do we distinguish emotions from feelings, such as heartache?
- What is the meaning of our emotions, and how do they serve to enrich and guide our lives?
- Is there a determinable number of basic emotions that serve as building blocks for the range of emotions we experience?
- Is an emotion such as jealousy a genetic trait shared by all humans—or is it something learned?
- The Japanese have an emotion named amae, but it seems unknown to Westerners. To what extent do language and culture determine emotional experience?
- Are emotions subconscious products of the mind, or are they under conscious control?
Philosopher at Work
One of the fascinating features of this course is that you get to witness a philosopher wrestling with the ideas of his predecessors—accepting, rejecting, refining their contributions, and modifying some of his own earlier views—in a demonstration of the intellectual honesty required to make progress in tackling a profound philosophical problem. He also ranges beyond philosophy to draw insights from psychology, sociology, neurology, history, and literature.
A multi-award-winning teacher at The University of Texas at Austin, Professor Solomon has written or edited more than 45 books, including The Passions, Not Passion's Slave, In Defense of Sentimentality, and About Love, as well as works on Existentialism, Nietzsche, Hegel, business ethics, and introductory philosophy.
In a review of Not Passion's Slave, he was singled out for being "at the heart of a revival of philosophical interest in the emotions" by The Times Literary Supplement, which noted his "energetic and provocative contributions to the field."
Professor Solomon had such a profound effect on one of his students at UT, the future film director Richard Linklater (best known for Before Sunrise and Before Sunset), that Linklater included a memorable extract of Professor Solomon lecturing on Existentialism in the acclaimed feature film Waking Life.
Professor Solomon has conducted three other highly popular Teaching Company courses: No Excuses: Existentialism and the Meaning of Life; Will to Power: The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche (with Kathleen Higgins); and Great Minds of the Western Intellectual Tradition (selected lectures).
"I want to invite you to look at your own emotions as if they are something wondrous, mysterious, and exotic, something you've always taken for granted—even when they've gotten you in trouble," says Professor Solomon at the outset of this course, which he divides into three sections:
- Passions, Love, and Violence: The Drama of the Emotions (Lectures 2–9). The course begins with eight lectures on specific emotions (anger, fear, love, compassion, pride, envy, vengeance, and grief) with insights into the complexity, importance, and roles emotions play in our lives.
- Out of Touch with Our Feelings: Misunderstanding the Emotions (Lectures 10–17). These eight lectures examine how we misinterpret and fail to take responsibility for our emotions. For example, the innocent-sounding claim that emotions are feelings represents a fundamental misunderstanding of what emotions are about. Other misconceptions are the seemingly innocent assertion that emotions are "in the mind" and the idea that we are the victims or slaves of our passions.
- How Our Passions Enrich Our Lives (Lectures 18–24). The concluding section takes a positive look at the richness and value of our emotions, probing what it is about them that make life worth living. Professor Solomon talks about laughter, music, and the roles that emotions play in different cultures.
Throughout the course, Professor Solomon returns again and again to his thesis that emotions have intelligence, an idea that has roots in Western philosophy tracing back to Aristotle. The notion of "emotional intelligence" gained notoriety through a 1990s bestseller by psychologist Daniel Goleman, but while Goleman and other popular writers on the subject primarily discuss learning how to control emotions, Professor Solomon digs deeper to reach the core of how emotions themselves contain intelligence—indeed many kinds of intelligence—and to explore the complex emotional repertoire that makes us uniquely human.
As you listen to these lectures, prepare to think: Think about your own emotions; think about what you observe in others; think about the enormous body of research and conjecture on this fascinating topic as Professor Solomon takes you on a challenging and stimulating journey.
"Emotions are our doing," he says. "An emotion is not just a product of evolution, but a product of cultivation and, sometimes, personal choice. If you look at your emotions and say, 'I will take responsibility for this because it is my doing,' sometimes you will be wrong; but in general, you will suddenly find that you've taken ownership of your life in a way that you hadn't before. And it seems to me that is a very important philosophical lesson."
Cosmology: The History and Nature of Our Universe [TTC Video]
21 November 2016, 21:04
Course No 1830 | AVI, XviD, 640x480 | MP3, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 36x30 mins | 7.01GB
Evidence for the birth of the universe is raining down on you. It's called the cosmic microwave background, and it's had quite a journey. Born in the stupendous annihilation of matter and antimatter seconds after the big bang, trapped in the hot plasma of the expanding universe for 380,000 years, and then suddenly released when the universe cooled to the point that atoms could form, this echo of creation has been on an uninterrupted voyage through space for 13.7 billion years—until it reached you. The cosmic microwave background is just one of the many clues about the history and nature of our universe that make the science of cosmology a wondrous, fascinating, and philosophically profound field of study.
Cosmology: The History and Nature of Our Universeintroduces you to the biggest story of all in 36 half-hour lectures that cover the origin, evolution, composition, and probable fate of our universe. This detailed and accessible course, presented by award-winning Professor Mark Whittle of the University of Virginia, incorporates more than 1,700 stunning illustrations.
The Perfect Time to Learn Cosmology
An expert on the dynamics of supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies, Professor Whittle is an astronomer with a gift for making his subject vivid, understandable, and awe inspiring. For example, in explaining the vastness of the universe, he asks you to imagine yourself as a stupendous giant making billion-light-year strides through the cosmos, hour after hour. Even at this ultra-warp-drive pace, you would always find yourself in the middle of a uniform mist of galaxies with no end in sight.
Professor Whittle notes that we are the first generation ever to know in detail just how the universe came to be. Right now is the perfect time to learn cosmology, since researchers have just completed the work on more than a decade of breathtaking discoveries. The picture they have assembled is truly stunning in its richness and coherence and includes such findings as these:
- The universe began 13.7 billion years ago in a hot big bang.
- The geometry of the universe's space is "flat," supporting the theory of a cosmic origin in a rapid, inflationary burst of unimaginable speed.
- Ripples frozen in space at the instant of inflation formed the seeds from which galaxies and all later structure grew.
- The universe will expand forever at an accelerating rate.
Take an Intimate Look at the Universe
Einstein famously said, "The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is that it is comprehensible." As Cosmology shows, the universe is comprehensible at a remarkably deep level in simple, intuitive terms. As the course unfolds, you are introduced to the major clues that have gone into deciphering the mystery of the cosmos. Some of these clues involve concepts at the cutting edge of astrophysics, such as dark matter, dark energy, and cosmicinflation. Professor Whittle introduces these and many other ideas with inventive analogies and then builds on his explanations.
For instance, one of the most extraordinary aspects of the cosmic microwave background is that it tells us the universe was ringing with sound during its first 380,000 years. It took a satellite measuring minute fluctuations in the microwave background to disclose this property of the early universe. But the story does not end there because scientists can say a great deal about this primordial sound and what it means:
- Was it loud? Variations in the microwave background indicate that the sound was the approximate decibel evel of front-row seats at a rock concert. (Professor Whittle picks Pink Floyd as a suitably deafening example.)
- What's the pitch? The primordial sound was 50 octaves lower than the range of human hearing. Just as larger organ pipes make deeper notes, so the universe's "pipes" are cosmic in size and make extremely low notes.
- Was it musical? As you hear in Professor Whittle's different re-creations of the primordial sound, it had a harmonic complexity with a quality somewhere between a musical note and noise.
- What does it tell us? The primordial sound included pressure waves destined to grow into the largest structures in the universe.
At Home in the Cosmos
There is also much to see in Cosmology. In addition to showing magnificent telescopic images, Professor Whittle illustrates his lectures with hundreds of informative diagrams, together with computer animations from NASA and other sources that give a three-dimensional perspective on the universe. You take a tour of our local supercluster, watch galaxies collide, and see "rivers" of galaxies flowing toward pockets of invisible dark matter, among other compelling simulations. Such a comprehensive, in-depth presentation is only available with this course and not in any classroom, book, or documentary.
Professor Whittle enriches his lectures with a number of simple equations, such as Hubble's Law. But you don't need to follow the math in detail, since he always restates what's going on in plain English. Indeed, Professor Whittle suggests that we may be hardwired to understand the universe at an intuitive level, since we evolved on a planet embedded in an astrophysical setting and subject to the same laws of physics that apply throughout all of space and time. We are truly at home in the cosmos.
Prepare to Be Surprised
Nonetheless, prepare to be surprised by some of the startling ideas you encounter in Cosmology:
- Matter and energy are only the positive side of reality. There is an equal and opposite negative side that resides in gravitational fields. Together they sum to zero, implying that the universe came from nothing.
- The annihilation of virtually all matter by antimatter just after the big bang means that every proton and electron in your body has survived a game of Russian roulette with a billion bullets and one blank.
- Dark energy has the crucial property of making the universe fall outward, rather than inward, which is why the expansion of the universe is accelerating.
- Our universe may be only one of many, in what has come to be called the multiverse. If each of these universes has different laws of physics, we should not be surprised that at least one—ours—happens to have the parameters that are conducive to life.
Looking back on the wealth of recent discoveries about the universe that are covered in this course, Professor Whittle can hardly contain his excitement. "I wouldn't be surprised if 500 years from now, these two decades will be seen as a period of breakthrough, not unlike the periods of discovery we associate with names like Copernicus, Newton, Darwin, or Einstein. ... One might say that right now is when cosmology has finally come of age."
Biology and Human Behavior: The Neurological Origins of Individuality, 2nd Edition [TTC Video]
21 November 2016, 21:02
Course No 1597 | AVI, XviD, 528x384 | MP3, 1286 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 5.9GB
When are we responsible for our own actions, and when are we in the grip of biological forces beyond our control? This intriguing question is the scientific province of behavioral biology, a field that explores interactions among the brain, mind, body, and environment that have a surprising influence on how we behave—from the people we fall in love with, to the intensity of our spiritual lives, to the degree of our aggressive impulses. In short, it is the study of how our brains make us the individuals that we are.
Biology and Human Behavior: The Neurological Origins of Individuality, 2nd Edition, is an interdisciplinary approach to this fascinating subject. In 24 lectures, you will investigate how the human brain is sculpted by evolution, constrained or freed by genes, shaped by early experience, modulated by hormones, and otherwise influenced to produce a wide range of behaviors, some of them abnormal. You will see that little can be explained by thinking about any one of these factors alone because some combination of influences is almost always at work.
Intense, Dynamic, and Entertaining
This course is a newly recorded and much-expanded update of Professor Robert Sapolsky's original Teaching Company course introduced in 1998, which was lauded as "extremely stimulating" by The American Biology Teacher.
A prominent neurobiologist, zoologist, and MacArthur "genius" grant recipient, Professor Sapolsky is a spellbinding lecturer who is also very entertaining. In a feature story in The New York Times, he was compared to a cross between renowned primatologist Jane Goodall and a borscht belt comedian. An article in the alumni magazine at Stanford University, where he teaches, called him "a man who exudes adrenaline and has a reservoir of intensity deep enough to spin the turbines at Hoover Dam."
What You Will Learn
The course opens with an introductory lecture and then proceeds to Modules I and II, which start at the level of how a single neuron works. You build upward to examine how millions of neurons in a particular region of the brain operate. The focus is on the regions of the brain most pertinent to emotion and behavior.
Modules III, IV, and V explore how the brain and behavior are regulated. First, you cover how the brain regulates hormones and how hormones influence brain function and behavior. Next you examine how both the brain and behavior evolved, covering contemporary thinking about how natural selection has sculpted and optimized behavior and how that optimization is mediated by brain function. Then you focus on a bridge between evolution and the brain, investigating what genes at the molecular level have to do with brain function and how those genes have evolved.
Module VI examines ethology, which is the study of the behavior of animals in their natural habitats. The focus in these lectures is on how hormones, evolution, genes, and behavior are extremely sensitive to environment.
Finally, Module VII explores how the various approaches—neurobiology, neuroendocrinology, evolution, genetics, and ethology—help explain an actual set of behaviors, with a particular focus on aggression. The final lecture summarizes what is known about the biology of human behavior and probes the societal implications of having such knowledge.
Insight into Yourself and Others
As you work through this thought-provoking and engaging material, you will learn much about your own behavior, not to mention that of others. One particularly intriguing region of the brain relating to behavior is the frontal cortex, which plays a central role in decision-making, gratification postponement, and other important functions. The frontal cortex is the part of the brain that "makes you do the harder thing," whether it is concentrating on an unwelcome task, keeping anger under control, or telling a white lie about a spouse's new haircut. Consider these cases:
- What happens when there is essentially no frontal cortex?: Railroad worker Phineas Gage suffered a massive frontal cortical lesion in a serious accident in the 1840s. Overnight, he changed from a sober, conscientious worker to a profane, aggressive, socially inappropriate man who could never regularly work again. The loss of his frontal cortex meant he lost his emotional regulation; he had no means to do the "harder thing."
- What happens when the frontal cortex is "offline"?: During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the frontal cortex goes offline, which explains why dreams are often wild and unrepressed—why dreams are dreamlike. People don't dream about balancing a checkbook. They dream about dancing in musicals or floating in the air.
- What happens when the frontal cortex is immature?: One of the great myths is that the brain is completely wired up and matured at a very early stage. However, the frontal cortex is not fully functional until an individual is about a quarter-century old—a fact that explains a lot of fraternity behavior, notes Professor Sapolsky. With this in mind, it's worth asking if a 16-year-old violent criminal is not, by definition, organically impaired in frontal cortical function.
Myths that Die Hard
The myth of the fully wired, mature young brain is one of the often-heard pieces of misinformation that this course corrects. Other areas where Professor Sapolsky revises widely held beliefs include:
- "For the good of the species": The old notion of group selection has been proven wildly incorrect. This is the idea that animals behave "for the good of the species" and that behaviors are driven by ways to increase the likelihood of the species surviving and multiplying. Evolution is not about animals behaving for the good of the species but, rather, behaving to optimize the number of copies of their own genes to pass on to the next generation.
- The inevitability of social structures: Professor Sapolsky's own fieldwork in Africa has shown that an archetypal male-dominated, aggressive society of baboons can change radically to a tradition of low aggression within a single generation. "If these guys are freed from the central casting roles for them in the anthropology textbooks, we as a species have no excuse to say we have inevitable social structures," he says.
Cause for Concern and Hope
At the end of the course, Professor Sapolsky explores the implications of our emerging understanding of the origins of individual differences. How much do these insights threaten our own sense of self and individuality? Where do we draw the line between the essence of the person and the biological abnormalities? What counts as being ill? Who is biologically impaired, and who is just different? As more and more subtle abnormalities of neurobiology are understood, how much should we worry about the temptation to label people as "abnormal"? And what happens when we each have a few of these labels?
These and other questions should concern us all. But while Professor Sapolsky sees alarming trends, he also sees cause for hope. We needn't worry that we are on the verge of unmasking the secret behind everything we do, he says, since we can never explain everything; every answer opens up a dozen new questions. Furthermore, to explain something is not to destroy the capacity to be moved by it. "In the end," says Professor Sapolsky, "the purpose of science is not to cure us of our sense of mystery and wonder but to constantly reinvent and reinvigorate it."