Quantum Mechanics: The Physics of the Microscopic World [TTC Video]
06 December 2016, 20:04
Course No 1240 | AVI, DivX, 720x480 | MP3, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x30 mins | 6.81GB
One day in 1900, German physicist Max Planck told his son that he had made a breakthrough as important as Isaac Newton's discovery of the workings of the universe. Planck had reached the surprising conclusion that light behaves as if it is packaged in discrete amounts, or quanta, a seemingly simple observation that would lead to a powerful new field of physics called quantum mechanics.
In the following decades, a series of great physicists built on Planck's discovery, including Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Louis de Broglie, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Richard Feynman, and many others, developing quantum mechanics into the most successful physical theory ever devised—the general framework that underlies our understanding of nature at its most fundamental level.
Quantum mechanics gives us a picture of the world that is so radically counterintuitive that it has changed our perspective on reality itself, raising profound questions about concepts such as cause and effect, measurement, and information. Despite its seemingly mysterious nature, quantum mechanics has a broad range of applications in fields such as chemistry, computer science, and cryptography. It also plays an important role in the development and innovation of some of today's most amazing—and important—technologies, including lasers, transistors, microscopes, semiconductors, and computer chips.
Quantum Mechanics: The Physics of the Microscopic World gives you the logical tools to grasp the paradoxes and astonishing insights of quantum mechanics in 24 half-hour lectures designed specifically for nonscientists and taught by award-winning Professor Benjamin Schumacher of Kenyon College.
No comparable presentation of this subject is so deep, so challenging, and yet accessible. Quantum Mechanics is generously illustrated with diagrams, demonstrations, and experiments and is taught by a professor who is both a riveting lecturer and a pioneer in the field, for Professor Schumacher is an innovator in the exciting new discipline of quantum information.
Think Like a Physicist
Working on the principle that any discovery made by the human mind can be explained in its essentials to the curious learner, Professor Schumacher teaches you how to reason like a physicist in working out the features of the quantum world. After taking this course, the following apparently inexplicable phenomena will make sense to you as logical outcomes of quantum processes:
- That quantum particles travel through space in the form of waves that spread out and are in many places at the same time
- That quantum mechanics takes us to a bedrock level of reality where objects are utterly simple, identical in every respect
- That two quantum particles can interact at a distance in a way that seems almost telepathic—a phenomenon that Albert Einstein called "spooky"
- That even in the complete vacuum of empty space, there is still a vast amount of energy bubbling into and out of existence
Regarding the last phenomenon, you could say that quantum mechanics not only changes our view of everything, it also changes our view of "nothing!"
Quantum mechanics has even entered popular language with expressions such as "quantum leap," which is often used inaccurately to mean a radical transformation. In quantum mechanics, a quantum leap is the minimum change in the energy level of an electron, related to the discrete units of light energy discovered by Max Planck.
Another familiar expression is the "uncertainty principle," an idea formulated by Werner Heisenberg in the 1920s. Again, popular usage can be misleading, since one often hears the term used to mean the unavoidable disturbance caused by making an observation. But in quantum mechanics the concept refers to an elementary feature of the microworld—that certain properties have no well-defined values at all.
Little wonder that quantum mechanics is one of the few fields in which philosophical speculation goes hand in hand with scientific breakthroughs. Consider these quantum puzzles that have striking philosophical implications:
- Schrödinger's cat: Erwin Schrödinger noted that the standard Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics makes it possible for a cat to be considered simultaneously dead and alive when exposed to a potentially lethal quantum situation.
- Bell's theorem: John Bell showed that we must either give up the idea that particles have definite properties before they are measured, or we must imagine that all the particles in the universe are connected by a web of instantaneous communication links.
- Many-worlds interpretation: In a scenario adopted by many science fiction authors, Hugh Everett III argued that every possible outcome of every quantum event takes place in a limitless branching series of parallel universes—of which we see only one.
Clear, Enlightening, and Thorough
Quantum Mechanics begins by exploring the origin of quantum mechanics and its golden age of discoveries in the early 20th century before taking you deeply into the key concepts and methods of the discipline. Then Professor Schumacher rounds out the course with a discussion of selected topics, including the potentially revolutionary applications of quantum cryptography and quantum computing. Throughout, he adheres to the following very helpful ground rules, tailored to give those without any previous preparation in math and physics a clear, enlightening, and thorough introduction to quantum mechanics:
- He presents the real theory of quantum mechanics, not a superficial popularization.
- He simplifies the subject to highlight fundamental principles.
- He uses thought experiments, or hypothetical examples, as a tool for probing quantum phenomena.
- He teaches you rudimentary symbols and rules that allow you to calculate the outcome of various quantum experiments.
One thought experiment that Professor Schumacher returns to involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a simple arrangement of mirrors and detectors that illustrates basic properties and paradoxes of quantum mechanics. By considering the different paths that a photon can take through the interferometer, you discover such key principles as constructive and destructive interference, Max Born's probabilistic explanation of quantum phenomena, and Niels Bohr's concept of complementarity that led to the Copenhagen interpretation—the view of quantum mechanics since the 1920s.
Lucid, witty, and intensely interesting, Dr. Schumacher's lectures are illustrated with scores of insightful graphics. You are also introduced to a celebrated visual aid used by physicists themselves: the Feynman diagram, made famous by Nobel Prize–winner Richard Feynman as a cartoon-like shorthand for keeping track of quantum particles as they ceaselessly interact, change their identities, and even move backward through time!
Be Part of a Great Tradition
Richard Feynman was a graduate student of the eminent theoretical physicist John A. Wheeler—and so was Professor Schumacher, who earned the last Ph.D. that Dr. Wheeler supervised. Wheeler, in turn, was mentored by Niels Bohr, who studied with Ernest Rutherford, one of the pioneers of nuclear physics at the turn of the 20th century. Therefore, as you watch Quantum Mechanics, you are part of an unbroken chain of thinkers who have transmitted ideas and added to them across the decades, pondering, probing, and making remarkable discovery after discovery to uncover the secrets of our physical world.
The Western Literary Canon in Context [TTC Video]
06 December 2016, 19:55
Course No 2120 | AVI, XviD, 640x480 | MP3, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 36x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 6.71GB
The Western literary canon has come to epitomize the official—and sometimes controversial—list of works that every educated person should know.
Among its more than 3,000 works are the Odyssey, Beowulf, Hamlet, and War and Peace—all of which have stood the test of time to become essential aspects of Western culture and our reading lives. Even if you haven't read some of them, you've undoubtedly heard of them—their mere titles are synonymous with greatness.
But what exactly is the Western literary canon? Why does it contain certain works and not others?
What is its history? What is its future?
Most important: What do particular works in the Western canon tell us about the development of literature and civilization?
You explore these and other thought-provoking questions in The Western Literary Canon in Context, a thorough investigation of more than 30 key works of the Western canon and the critical roles they played—and continue to play—in the development of Western literature. Over the course of 36 lectures, award-winning professor and author John M. Bowers of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas takes you from the formation of the Bible to the postcolonial literature of the late 20th century, revealing the exciting stories behind these classic works and their often surprising connections with one another.
It's an insightful approach that will reshape your thoughts about the evolution of literature and will open your eyes to the hidden dialogue among Western civilization's most cherished and influential authors.
Explore Key Influences
Great literature has always played a central role in Western civilization and our lives. It has given us creation myths, celebrated the glories of our past, shown us new ways to envision our future, helped us make sense of tragedy, inspired political movements, and instigated social change. The important role of books in our lives makes understanding canonic works all the more essential to understanding our culture.
The various entries in the Western literary canon also encompass a wide variety of subjects, genres, themes, and literary styles that set the standards that today's authors follow. We study Beowulf to get the best example of epic Old English poetry; we study Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway to understand stream of consciousness as a narrative technique; and we study William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury to experience the complexity of the American South.
In addition, studying these works in their various political, religious, and cultural contexts helps you see and appreciate the lively dialogue between authors and works within the Western literary canon. As the poet (and member of the canon) T. S. Eliot wrote in a 1919 essay, "You cannot value [the artist] alone. You must set him, for contrast and comparison, among the dead."
The Western Literary Canon in Context is your opportunity to delve into hallmark works of the canon specifically chosen to exemplify its growth within a series of similar themes. You gain invaluable insights into the stories behind these masterpieces and some of the important elements involved in canon formation:
- The influence of editors: Canon formation, you discover, is a critical part of the Bible's enduring legacy to Western literature. In the 4th century, Eusebius of Caesarea sorted out the body of Christian scriptures and established 20 books of the New Testament, acknowledging the Acts of the Apostles while rejecting the Gospel of St. Thomas, for instance. Later that century, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria issued a list of 27 New Testament books that would prevail as the standard—he even used the word "canonized."
- The influence of culture: You see how some of the West's greatest cultures fostered the creation of key canonic works and how some works, in turn, became part of that culture's soul. Homer's epic poem, the Odyssey, helped cement the idea of a Greek hero in its characterization of the crafty warrior Odysseus, while Virgil's Aeneid, commissioned by the Roman emperor Augustus, celebrated the origins of the Roman Empire.
- The influence of education: The best way to get into the canon is to get into the classroom, where we are first introduced to the Western canon's great works. While teaching at Oxford, J. R. R. Tolkien pushed to get Beowulf on the required reading list—and even today the college classroom remains the typical place readers first encounter the poem.
- The influence of controversy: Many of the Western canon's works were controversial upon their publication, drawing both the anger of religious and political establishments and the appreciation of literary critics. The "racy" elements of works like Ovid's Metamorphoses and James Joyce's Ulysses shocked contemporary readers but later were celebrated for their influence on Western storytelling techniques and the groundbreaking new ways they explored the human spirit.
Participate in a Riveting Literary Discussion
The Western Literary Canon in Context's approach to the masterpieces of Western literature focuses on the unique connections between each work and its predecessors.
You follow and participate in a riveting literary discussion, witnessing how, through their works, history's great writers have "talked" with one another across time. You come to understand that the books in the Western literary canon were not created in a vacuum but instead were shaped by the literary traditions that came before them. As Professor Bowers emphasizes, the Western literary canon generates itself backward.
- When Virgil wrote the Aeneid, he echoed the Homeric epics the Iliad and the Odyssey to reflect the transition of power from the Greek to the Roman world and similarly the transition of culture from Greek literature to Latin poetry. In the Divine Comedy, Dante's Christian epic, Virgil would be portrayed as Dante's spiritual guide during his journey through Hell and Purgatory.
- Voltaire's Candide contains numerous allusions and references to canonic authors and works. The Venetian nobleman Pococurante mocks authors like Homer and Milton when he gives Candide a tour of his library, while the hidden realm of El Dorado to which the title character flees bears a striking resemblance to the world in Sir Thomas More's Utopia.
- Herodotus and Thucydides are considered the fathers of history, and their respective works The Histories and The Peloponnesian War provide us with the two major models for history writing. Herodotus sought to find the root causes to explain the military and national events of the Peloponnesian War, while Thucydides structured his history like an Athenian tragedy.
- John Milton's epic religious poem, Paradise Lost, is a catalog of the canonic works that precede it, from Plato's The Apology of Socrates (in Satan's use of persuasion with rhetoric) to William Shakespeare's Hamlet (in Satan's motive of revenge against God).
As you progress through The Western Literary Canon in Context, from the ancient Greek tragedies of Sophocles, Aeschylus, and Euripides to the multicultural themes of Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, you see that as the cultural landscape changes, so, too, does our reading of these works.
Ponder the Western Canon's Future
The Western canon continues to broaden its definitions in the 20th century with stylistically unique works such as T. S. Eliot's "The Waste Land." As Western civilization expanded, its literature also expanded to encompass Eastern literary themes. What was once a canon dominated by Western themes and works started to become increasingly diverse.
Many of the works and authors you examine in the final lectures of The Western Literary Canon in Context have not been touched on in previous Teaching Company literature courses. While the canonic status of these contemporary works is still up for debate, Professor Bowers makes convincing arguments for the worth of these recent novels:
- Thomas Mann's The Magic Mountain
- Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop
- J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings trilogy
- Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children
Analyzing these recent works gives you a wealth of ideas as to the possible future of the Western canon and offers you insights into works that may well be the canonic masterpieces of the next 100 years.
Take a Panoramic Look at Literature
With more than 30 years of experience teaching literature at a variety of universities, including Princeton University and the University of Virginia, Professor Bowers has a passion for literature that is contagious. The recipient of a Nevada Regents' Teaching Award, he draws rich connections between works as diverse as The Tempest, Dante's Divine Comedy, St. Augustine's Confessions, and Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice and makes you think about these icons of our literary tradition as an essential part of our world.
Novels, poems, plays, histories, and philosophical treatises: All of the masterpieces studied here provide, at their core, engaging literary experiences that have captivated readers for centuries. As you study the importance of the Western literary canon in works such as Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the Decameron, and The Charterhouse of Parma, you find yourself immersed in worlds of adventure, intrigue, and fantasy and exploring a range of human themes like romantic love, chivalric honor, and religious devotion.
A panoramic look at literature, The Western Literary Canon in Context proves to you the central importance of these cultural milestones and reveals their timeless legacies. The course is your opportunity to witness a rich literary dialogue and take an amazing journey through thousands of years of literary beauty, grace, and humanity. You'll never think about these classic works the same way again.
War and World History [TTC Video]
03 December 2016, 20:19
Course No 8870 | AVI, XviD, 640x480 | MP3, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 48x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 8.98GB
For thousands of years, military engagements between opposing nations and societies have had important effects on all aspects of human civilization. While the most direct and recognizable impacts of war are the victories and defeats that shape the course of history, warfare also affects human culture in ways that are not always appreciated or understood.
Surprising as it may seem, war often creates as well as destroys. As the most complex of all human endeavors, warfare—from ancient to modern—has spurred the growth of essential new technologies; demanded the adoption of complex economic systems; shaped the ideology and culture of nations; promoted developments in art and literature; and spread faith across the globe.
Consider, for example, just a few intriguing facts about the important role of warfare in human history:
- The banking and credit systems that are mainstays of our culture developed as a specific response to the needs of war.
- Although wars often appear to emerge from conflict within political systems, in many cases— such as the Ottoman Empire and the European nation-states—the political systems themselves emerged from the activity of war.
- The New England colonies in the United States would probably never have survived economically if it were not for huge profits from piracy and privateering.
Here, then, is a highly provocative encounter with history. In War and World History, celebrated military historian and Professor Jonathan P. Roth of San José State University offers you a fresh and challenging insight into human societies through a deep look at the effects and roles of war.
These 48 lectures take you on an exploration of humanity's interface with armed conflict across five continents. But this is far from a traditional approach to military events. This panoramic series is not the history of battles or military campaigns, but the story of the intimate interconnections of war with human cultures and societies and how these connections have shaped history.
As a penetrating view of the many contexts and meanings of warfare, War and World History is for anyone interested in understanding the evolution of our civilization, past and present.
The Global Terrain of Human Conflict
Huge in scope and fascinating in its details, War and World History explores the complex effects of culture, economics, politics, and religion on war—and war's influences on them. In this context, you chart the colorful history of the practice and methodology of warfare.
As your guide, Professor Roth is unusually well qualified to present a broad-minded view of these events. A war protester in his youth, he later served for six years in the New York Army National Guard, then became an acclaimed scholar of warfare. With his richly informed perspective, the lectures unfold as an enthralling inquiry into the nature of organized conflicts.
In probing the links between evolving human cultures and warmaking, the course reveals the ways in which the fate of civilizations is determined by the fate of military events.
But there's another core feature of the lectures: Seen through the lens of armed struggle, this is world history itself at its most vivid and compelling. You witness the dramatic rise of organized societies, economic systems, empires, and nations, as well as world-shaping creeds, ideologies, cultural forms, and developing conceptions of religion, citizenship, and social identity.
Professor Roth makes the great scope of the material directly understandable by focusing the lectures around the core themes of economics, politics, religion, and social culture in their relation to warfare.
War Pays Its Way
In the 8th century B.C. the Phoenicians—famous as traders—staked out maritime colonies across the Mediterranean. Their goal: vast profit from silver, slaves, and other commodities. But this trade came about through warfare and was pursued in support of warfare. Backed by the first warships designed specifically to fight other ships, the Phoenicians' trade in silver funded the armies of the Assyrian Empire.
This deep interweaving of warfare with economies forms a theme you investigate across the arc of history. In selected lectures you learn
- how the cost of a single medieval castle consumed as much as a third of a kingdom's entire revenue;
- how bitter conflict over war budgets led to the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215;
- how Renaissance credit and banking empires arose in response to the financial strains of war;
- how the victory of liberal democracies over totalitarian regimes in the 20th century was due to successful management of capitalist economies.
The "Anatomy" of Warfare
Throughout War and World History, the lectures highlight the vital methodology and organization of war and the military cultures that grew from them.
You trace the fortunes of the chariot in the Bronze Age as it spread across the Asian core, revolutionizing battle and spurring the "chariot nobility," as nobles were granted lands and incentives to produce chariots for royal armies.
In classical Greece, hoplite soldiers rejected the aristocratic tradition of individual combat, facing the enemy as a phalanx in a wall of shields. You learn how this practice bred an ideology of equality and how the hoplite system had political features that remain important today.
Among many "engagements" with military methodology, you study the momentous rise of the regiment and the vast 18th-century European naval system. And you consider the factors that allowed Spanish forces numbering in the hundreds of men to defeat Aztec armies of tens of thousands.
World-Conquering Empires, Nation-States, and Ideologies
At the heart of the series, you explore the political contexts of war over three millennia, as societies, empires, and political systems flourished or fell by military means.
- You trace the role of militaries in the great empires, from Rome's profit-based warmaking to the gunpowder conquests of the Safavid Persians to the global reach of Europe's colonial powers.
- You study the feudal system, west and east, in the Middle Ages and the power structures of lords, vassals, and armored horsemen.
- You explore the 17th-century European nation-state, where militaries were "nationalized" into central governments and military service was imbued with ideology of citizenship and loyalty to state.
- You define the crucial military underpinnings of nationalism, Communism, and Fascism in the modern era.
War and the Gods
The interface of warfare with religion breeds some of the most unusual and poignant of history's conflicts.
In the early societies, you see how the Assyrians delivered military reports to the temples of the god Assur, on whose behalf they waged war, and how the Achaemenid Persians conceived of the earth as a spiritual battlefield, with two supreme beings locked in a violent struggle of good versus evil.
You follow religious conquests from Asia to the New World, as Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and even Buddhism spread through military force. You probe the Christian and Muslim ideologies of holy war, the bloody Sunni-Shi'a split within Islam, and the Catholic wars against the pagans, the Byzantine orthodoxy, and the Protestants.
Here you find some of the most jarring details of humanity's propensity for violence. You encounter the Hindu justification for killing in war—that war itself is an illusion—and the Christian "paramilitary" monks who attacked pagan temples and carried out assassinations.
The Colorful Instruments of Conflict
The history of warfare reads as a dynamic, overlapping series of technological inventions, as weapons systems arose and mutated, changing military practice and reaching across cultures.
Central to this theme, you trace the history-making military revolutions, including those of the bow, the horse, the sword, and gunpowder. You follow the two separate gunpowder revolutions; first in China, where the technology originates, and second in western Europe, where the practice of "corning" gunpowder vastly increased its power, transforming warfare worldwide.
You mark the great changes in weaponry brought by the Industrial Revolution, as advances in firearms, explosives, and shipbuilding galvanized arms industries. And you see how these factors led to the global military dominance of the European powers.
War's Deep Imprints in Social Life and Culture
Throughout the course, you delve into the fascinating ways in which war shapes social culture—and social culture shapes wars.
In ancient Greece, you enter the symposia—rich banquets where young aristocrats trained for war through songs, poems, and ritual drinking. You learn the uncommon role of gender on the Asian steppes, where women rose as distinguished warriors and were buried with their weapons.
In the feudal era, you study the codes of courtly conduct, chivalry, and honor of the European, Muslim, and Asian cultures.
You consider the Renaissance intellectual revolutions in science, philology, and humanist philosophy, and you see how these were profoundly influenced by thinking about war, and how, in turn, they changed military theory forever.
And you see key imprints of war through the centuries in the relations of class and race and in the literature of heroes, history writing, and art.
The lectures pulsate with intriguing facts and anecdotes that bring the material vibrantly to life. You learn the origin of chess pieces in the divisions of the Indian army, and the military source of the legend of the Amazons. You learn of the military work of Leonardo da Vinci and the war-making role of early Catholicism, as Pope Julius II, in full armor, led an army against Venice.
From first to last, Professor Roth presents the epic story of armed struggle in a way that is both graspable and deeply insightful. Clearly delineating the underpinnings of economics, politics, religion, and culture in their embrace with warfare, he knits together the history-making processes and events that gave us the world we know today.
In the global landscape of human societies, War and World History defines patterns and currents of civilization that are critical to our thinking about humanity's past, present, and future. Probe these pivotal and revealing features of history and deepen your understanding of our extraordinary, evolving world.