American Military History: From Colonials to Counterinsurgents [TTC Video]
18 February 2018, 23:21
Course No 8706 | M4V, AVC, 854x480 | AAC, 160 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x28 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 2.7GB
First in his class at West Point, Wesley Clark took enemy fire while leading an Army patrol during the Vietnam War and was evacuated from the battlefield on a stretcher. But his career did not end with a Purple Heart and a Silver Star. It was only the beginning of a lifelong campaign that culminated as Supreme Allied Commander Europe—and a surgical military victory in Kosovo.
A Rhodes Scholar and thinking man’s officer, Gen. Clark came to master all the tactics, strategy, and historical lore of the U.S. military, the world’s greatest fighting force. In American Military History: From Colonials to Counterinsurgents, he explores the full scope of the nation’s armed conflicts, from the French and Indian War in the mid-18th century to the Global War on Terrorism in the 21st, covering more than 200 years of American diplomacy and warfare. These 24 absorbing half-hour lectures chart the remarkable growth of the United States into the most powerful nation on Earth, thanks in large part to its talent for rising to the occasion when called to war.
He retraces the footsteps of some of his most storied predecessors in uniform—men such as Winfield Scott, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, John J. Pershing, George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Creighton Abrams, Norman Schwartzkopf, and others—through tragedy and triumph; on the road to war, and the winding path to peace.
And Gen. Clark culls important lessons—along with his own wisdom—from history-changing conflicts that nations and their leaders have found so easy to start and so difficult to conclude. In just one of many examples, he reveals the importance of learning from experience through the story of one of the nation’s founding fathers, George Washington, who nearly lost the Revolutionary War before learning how to win it.
The United States won its independence by defeating the British Empire, settled the issue of slavery by fighting the Civil War, and became a superpower by emerging victorious from World War II. Military campaigns have played a crucial role in defining the United States and its place in the world. America may not have won all its wars, but its military history provides a powerful lesson in the causes that motivate its leaders and citizens. And the study of that history underscores the qualities that it takes to prevail on the battlefield, including experienced officers, trained and disciplined soldiers, equipment, logistics, and, above all, a strategic vision.
Paths to Victory
In American Military History, you study warfare the way it’s taught at the United States Military Academy, where Clark was first in his class. Every war, every campaign, every battle is a veritable textbook on possible paths to victory or defeat, among them:
- Surprise: The time to strike is when an opposing force is separated, distracted, and disorganized due to crossing an obstacle such as a river. This is exactly what happened to British Gen. Edward Braddock’s troops while fording the Monongahela River during the French and Indian War—a lesson not lost on his young aide-de-camp, Lt. Col. George Washington.
- Strategy: The Union’s rapid conquest of Fort Donelson during the Civil War showed poor strategy by the Confederates, who lacked a coherent picture of the theater of operations, and it demonstrated superb strategic thinking by the Union commander, Ulysses S. Grant. More than any other general at the time, Grant saw the big picture of the war and how to win it—which he did.
- Simplicity: “In war, there are two kinds of plans,” says Gen. Clark, “those that might work and those that won’t work. You want to pick a plan that might work and then make it work.” In the Battle of Midway during World War II, the Japanese navy had ambitious, multiple objectives, split its forces, and then was ambushed by the U.S. fleet, suffering a crushing defeat.
- Speed: The U.S. armed forces took rapid assault to a new level in the operation to restore order to Panama in 1989–1990, pursuing multiple simultaneous attacks. One aim was to finish the fight before outside pressure could hamper the operation’s successful conclusion. Speed and overwhelming force have become hallmarks of U.S. military doctrine.
- Clarity: Officers are taught from their earliest training to avoid giving ambiguous orders. In the Spanish-American War, President William McKinley’s directive to “reduce Spanish power” and introduce “order and security” in the Philippines, without specifying how, threw a political problem into the laps of the commanders on the scene, with unfortunate results.
- Creativity: In the last lecture, Gen. Clark speculates that “no field of human endeavor sparks as much creativity as warfare.” This is evident in any protracted conflict, which sees new tactics followed by counter-tactics, novel technologies and weapons followed by countermeasures. The watchword among Clark’s fellow officers was, “The enemy has a vote on what works.”
War from the Inside
While any survey of American history covers its wars, this course looks at war from the inside, through the eyes of a soldier who has studied it, lived it, taught it. Among the personal experiences that Gen. Clark relates as he guides you through three centuries of conflict are:
- Fighting insurgents: In 1969–1970, Clark was an army captain in Vietnam during Gen. Creighton Abrams’ implementation of a new strategy to defeat North Vietnamese guerillas. Before he was wounded in action, Capt. Clark saw firsthand the promise of this new approach, which was later abandoned in the politically driven drawdown of American troops.
- Words to live by: In 1976, Clark was a White House Fellow having dinner with Israeli Prime Minister and former Gen. Yitzhak Rabin. He asked Rabin the most important advice he had for a young officer. “Persistence is what wins,” came the answer, and Rabin related a critical battle he fought where persistence won the day when all seemed lost.
- Wars are hard to stop: Once bloodshed starts, wars have a terrible momentum. While negotiating the Bosnia Peace Agreement in 1995, U.S. diplomat Richard Holbrooke insisted, “The most important thing is to stop the killing.” Gen. Clark was the military leader working with Holbrooke’s diplomacy and later commanded NATO forces charged with curbing ethnic cleansing in the region.
Gen. Clark shows how these lessons resonate with past conflicts: with the insurgency that American troops faced in the Philippines after the Spanish-American War; with Gen. Zachary Taylor’s tenacious defense against an overwhelming assault at the Battle of Buena Vista during the Mexican-American War; and with “the shot heard ‘round the world,” which drew the first blood in the American Revolution. “Forces can maneuver, they can deploy, they can threaten, and feint,” says Gen. Clark. “But once the killing starts, passions are aroused, and the stakes expand.”
Available in both video and audio formats, American Military History is especially rewarding in its video version, which has extensive historical engravings, photographs, film clips, and maps, including animated diagrams showing the tactical moves during famous battles. The scores of examples include:
- Andrew Jackson’s defense of New Orleans
- Winfield Scott’s Mexico City campaign
- Ulysses S. Grant’s siege of Vicksburg
- George S. Patton’s counterattack during the Battle of the Bulge
- Douglas MacArthur’s surprise landing at Inchon
- Norman Schwarzkopf’s Operation Desert Storm
Throughout American Military History, you witness large conflicts, small wars of necessity, and wars of choice, actions on America’s shores and far away—on land, sea, and in the air. You learn that certain traditions trace to the country’s earliest years. Among these are the citizen soldier and the principle of civilian control, established by George Washington. Another is a professional officer corps, trained at military academies open to all on a merit basis. When Wesley Clark arrived at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1962, his entering class received an address by retired Gen. Douglas MacArthur, who extolled the three hallowed words in the academy’s motto—Duty, Honor, Country—and reminded the future warriors, “There is no substitute for victory.”
Radio Astronomy: Observing the Invisible Universe [TTC Video]
07 February 2018, 06:25
Course No 1878 | .MP4, AVC, 1280x720 | AAC, 192 kbps, 2 Ch | 24x30 mins | + PDF Guidebook | 11.31GB
It’s easy to imagine the first modern humans staring up at the heavens in wonder, their eyes and minds dazzled by a beautiful band of light splashed across the night sky, the ever-changing moon so large and bright, and pinpoints of light in every direction. For a few hundred thousand years, our eyes were our primary astronomical tool, and we used them well. We catalogued and analyzed what we saw, filled in the gaps with powerful stories, applied what we knew of mathematics, and then invented complex tools of stone, metal, and glass to expand our knowledge. Everything we knew about the universe was based on light, that small part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by human eyes.
Then one day in the 1930s, a young engineer named Karl Jansky was assigned a task at Bell Labs: What were the sources of radio static that could interrupt transatlantic radio communications? After several years of work, he identified one source as radio waves coming from thunderstorms near and far… and another, from something at the center of the Milky Way. For the very first time, we had detected radiation below the visible part of the spectrum emanating from an astronomical object. For years, astronomers had been frustrated by interstellar dust that blocked their view and limited their
Radio Astronomy: Observing the Invisible Universe takes you on a thrilling journey through the universe with stunning visuals and animations to explain the science of radio astronomy and its astounding discoveries. Your guide is Felix J. Lockman, Ph.D., of the Green Bank Observatory, an active radio astronomer whose great passion for his work is absolutely contagious. As Dr. Lockman explains, radio astronomy is not simply a conglomeration of theories with no practical application to our lives today. While radio astronomy has the potential to one day answer the question of extraterrestrial intelligence, it also allows us to more accurately tell time right here on Earth, study terrestrial plate tectonics, and even get smartphone directions to that great new restaurant.
All about That Hydrogen
Some of radio astronomy’s myriad discoveries can be traced to the structure of the hydrogen atom. In hydrogen, one electron is essentially in orbit around one proton and both have a property called “spin,” either up or down. The parallel spin “wants” to decay into antiparallel spin—much like two magnets “wanting” to be aligned north to south, or antiparallel. In jumping position from parallel to antiparallel, a photon of radiation is emitted.
This process is certainly not unique to hydrogen. What is unique is that at the dawn of radio astronomy, a scientist predicted hydrogen would emit this radiation at detectable radio wavelengths, and this prediction offered astronomers a new tool for studying the universe. Three teams of scientists from around the world worked to discover the signal, and there it was, exactly as predicted: with a frequency of 1420 MHz, a wavelength of 21 cm.
For more than a decade, hydrogen at 21 cm wavelength remained the only spectral line which radio astronomers could use for their research. Later, signals from other elements and even molecules were identified. Over time, as both theory and technology improved, radio astronomers made discoveries that completely changed our understanding of the universe. Just a very few of these discoveries include:
- Jupiter’s radiation belts;
- Galactic non-thermal radiation, now called synchrotron emission;
- The birth rate of stars in the Milky Way and the galaxy’s rotational speed;
- Sagittarius A, the black hole at the center of the Milky Way;
- Dark matter;
- Neutron stars, pulsars, and binary pulsar systems;
- Gravitational radiation, as predicted by Einstein;
- Cosmic background radiation, confirming the big bang theory;
- Radio galaxies, quasars, and active galactic nuclei;
- Giant molecular clouds, the birthplaces of stars and planets; and
- Complex organic molecules in interstellar space.
Radio Telescopes, “Seeing” the Invisible
While you might have an optical telescope in your backyard, you will likely never have a radio telescope. Radio telescopes are large—over 100 meters in diameter and beyond—because radio waves contain such a small amount of energy. For example, the signal from your cell phone measured one kilometer away is five million billion times stronger than the radio signals received from a bright quasar! Although each radio telescope is designed for a specific use and often looks very different from others, they are all based on the same physical principles. Each collects, focuses, amplifies, and analyzes radio waves. In Radio Astronomy: Observing the Invisible Universe, Dr. Lockman takes you on an exciting virtual tour of radio telescopes. From the first handmade telescope built by radio astronomy pioneer Grote Reber to those on the drawing board for tomorrow, you’re right there with the scientists:
- The Green Bank Telescope, West Virginia, where Dr. Lockman does his research. At 17 million pounds and with more than 2,000 surface panels that can be repositioned in real time, this telescope is one of the largest moveable, land-based objects ever built.
- The Very Large Array (VLA), New Mexico. With its 27 radio antennas in a Y-shaped configuration, the data can be multiplied to form interference patterns, giving scientists a deeper and clearer look at galaxies than ever before.
- The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), Chile. With an array of 66 radio antennas located high above much of the earth’s atmosphere, ALMA has revealed new stars and planetary systems in the making.
- The Very-Long-Baseline Array (VLBA), with multiple locations. The VLBA includes telescopes located thousands of miles apart, all functioning together as one single radio telescope the size of the Earth, allowing scientists to peer deep into the centers of galaxies.
The Biggest Questions
Perhaps the most astounding of all radio astronomy discoveries is this: The dominant molecular structures in interstellar space are based on carbon. That is not what scientists had expected.
We have always labeled these molecules “organic” because life on Earth is carbon based. Now we know that the chemistry of the entire Milky Way is organic, not just our home planet, and it is likely that any extraterrestrial galactic life would be related to us, at least on the molecular level. Will we find other organic lifeforms out there? Radio astronomers don’t know. But they’re working on it, along with the study of many other objects and processes not yet understood. Dr. Lockman’s current research addresses hydrogen clouds in the Andromeda galaxy, the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way. Other radio astronomers are working to answer myriad questions about dark matter, fast radio bursts, and much more.
If the history of radio astronomy is any predictor, discoveries in these new research areas will lead to new questions, new technologies, more discoveries, and more questions. As Radio Astronomy: Observing the Invisible Universe shows, the field is on the cutting edge of knowledge itself. “Astronomy, by looking outward, leads us to questions that reflect upon ourselves in very deep ways,” Dr. Lockman says. “Astronomical discoveries have changed the way we think.”
Theory of Evolution: A History of Controversy [TTC Video]
07 February 2018, 06:04
Course No 174 | AVI, XviD, 480x352 | MP3, 128 kbps, 2 Ch | 12x30 mins | 2.1GB
Charles Darwin's theory of organic evolution—the idea that life on earth is the product of purely natural causes, not the hand of God—set off shock waves that continue to reverberate through Western society, and especially the United States. What makes evolution such a profoundly provocative concept, so convincing to most scientists, yet so socially and politically divisive? The Theory of Evolution: A History of Controversy is an examination of the varied elements that so often make this science the object of strong sentiments and heated debate.
Professor Edward J. Larson leads you through the "evolution" of evolution, with an eye toward enhancing your understanding of the development of the theory itself and the roots of the controversies that surround it. In these lectures you will:
- Explore pre-Darwinian theories of the origins of life, from Genesis and the ancient Greeks to such 18th- and 19th-century scientists as Georges Cuvier and Chevalier de Lamarck
- Follow the life and work of Charles Darwin, and the impact of his 1859 masterpiece, On the Origin of Species. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection was immediately recognized as a threat to traditional religion, but was quickly accepted (the first printing of Origin of Species sold out on the first day)
- Examine the history of evolutionary science after Darwin—a fascinating story that includes the "rediscovery," after 35 years, of Gregor Mendel's work on genetic variation; the unearthing of prehominid, or early human, fossils by Raymond Dart in 1925 and the Leakey family in the 1950s; and the confusion created by the sensational, but later discredited, discovery of Piltdown Man—a fake evolutionary "missing link"—in 1912
- Trace the history of religious objections to evolution, from those of Darwin's own time to contemporary efforts to teach creation science in American schools. This includes a detailed discussion of the famous Scopes "monkey trial," which in fact was a staged media event, designed to create publicity for the town of Dayton, Tennessee.
Are Our Genes more Important than We Are?
This course makes it clear that the history of controversy surrounding evolution is not limited to a dispute between science and religion. Even within the scientific community, the fine details of the theory of evolution have long been a matter of passionate dispute.
In fact, in the last third of the 19th century, the principal objections were scientific, not religious. Although the fossil record was a key piece of evidence for evolution, it had gaps that could be used to argue against the theory. And both proponents and critics wondered how altruistic human qualities such as love and generosity could possibly have evolved through the competitive, often harsh, processes that Darwin described.
From Professor Larson's presentation, you will learn that new ideas in evolution science have often created new controversies. For example, is it truly possible, as some scientists now maintain, that humans exist merely to ensure the survival of their genes? Such research has created disagreement among scientists about the degree to which evolution drives human behavior, and has further alienated many segments of the public.
Evolution's "Dark Side": Social Darwinism
In these lectures, you will review perhaps the most sinister controversy associated with the theory of evolution: social Darwinism. From the beginning, the Darwinian theory of evolution has been linked to economic and political views. Thomas Malthus's theories of population growth and competition for limited resources even inspired Darwin's thinking on natural selection.
Unfortunately, later supporters of evolution carried this line of thinking too far. Beginning with Herbert Spencer, who coined the term "survival of the fittest," Darwin's ideas were used as evidence for a wide range of social beliefs, from laissez-faire capitalism to racism, colonialism, and, in perhaps the worst application, Nazism. In the United States, social Darwinism has served as a basis for the creation of IQ tests and for eugenics programs that resulted in the forced sterilization of thousands of mentally ill or retarded Americans.
Unsettling Implications: The Growing Gulf Between Science and Religion
During the late 19th century, largely through the efforts of scientists who sought to integrate evolutionary science with spiritual belief, evolution was widely accepted by the religious community in the United States. Today, this is hardly the case.
In his last four lectures, Professor Larson examines the trends that have, since 1920, widened the gulf between science and religion. These include an increase in fundamentalist Protestantism, the weakening of liberal Protestantism as a counteracting force, and the growing power of a firmly conservative South.
In the 1960s, federally funded neo-Darwinian textbooks provoked a conservative backlash. Beginning with the publication of Henry M. Morris's The Genesis Flood, efforts to gain equal time for the teaching of creation science, based on biblical teachings, gathered strength. Rebuffed by the courts, creationism continues to thrive through the increasing numbers of private Christian schools and through home schooling.
The growing gulf between science and religion has unsettling implications for our society. Large segments of the American population reject the naturalism of current evolutionary thinking. Nine of 10 Americans believe in spiritual causes for life, with only 10 percent accepting the purely naturalistic explanations espoused by evolution. Strikingly, these statistics are almost exactly the opposite among the scientific community.
A Pulitzer Prize-Winning Teacher
As both a historian of science and a professor of law, Professor Edward J. Larson brings exceptional qualifications to this subject. His book, Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America's Continuing Debate Over Science and Religion, won the 1998 Pulitzer Prize in History. His analysis provides an invaluable perspective on the volatile history of what is arguably the single most significant idea of modern times.