Peace in the Middle East: The Challenge for Israel [EPUB]
15 July 2015, 14:03
2014 | EPUB + PDF | 2.73/3.52MB
Specialists from Israel, Europe and the US examine the implications of peace for Israel. How would it affect the country's political and economic systems and its national security, and what would peace mean for its regional and international standing and its relations with world Jewry?
Why Information Grows: The Evolution of Order, from Atoms to Economies [EPUB]
14 July 2015, 08:14
2015 | EPUB | 5.81MB
What is economic growth? And why, historically, has it occurred in only a few places? Previous efforts to answer these questions have focused on institutions, geography, finances, and psychology. But according to MIT's antidisciplinarian César Hidalgo, understanding the nature of economic growth demands transcending the social sciences and including the natural sciences of information, networks, and complexity. To understand the growth of economies, Hidalgo argues, we first need to understand the growth of order.
At first glance, the universe seems hostile to order. Thermodynamics dictates that over time, order--or information--will disappear. Whispers vanish in the wind just like the beauty of swirling cigarette smoke collapses into disorderly clouds. But thermodynamics also has loopholes that promote the growth of information in pockets. Our cities are pockets where information grows, but they are not all the same. For every Silicon Valley, Tokyo, and Paris, there are dozens of places with economies that accomplish little more than pulling rocks off the ground. So, why does the US economy outstrip Brazil's, and Brazil's that of Chad? Why did the technology corridor along Boston's Route 128 languish while Silicon Valley blossomed? In each case, the key is how people, firms, and the networks they form make use of information.
Seen from Hidalgo's vantage, economies become distributed computers, made of networks of people, and the problem of economic development becomes the problem of making these computers more powerful. By uncovering the mechanisms that enable the growth of information in nature and society, Why Information Grows lays bear the origins of physical order and economic growth. Situated at the nexus of information theory, physics, sociology, and economics, this book propounds a new theory of how economies can do, not just more, but more interesting things.
Reykjavik Revisited: Steps Toward a World Free of Nuclear Weapons [EPUB]
14 July 2015, 07:51
2008 | EPUB | 1.35MB
Fulfilling the promise of Reykjavik
Drawn from presentations made at the Hoover Institution's October 2007 conference, this collection of essays examines the practical steps necessary to address the current security challenges of nuclear weapons and to move toward the goal Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev envisaged in their historic meeting at Reykjavik: the elimination of all nuclear weapons. The distinguished group of contributors includes former officials of the past six administrations—Republican and Democratic—along with senior scholars and scientific experts on nuclear issues. They discuss the critical issues involved in reducing the number of weapons, preventing the growth of new nuclear weapons capabilities, securing nuclear stockpiles worldwide, the challenges of verification and compliance with treaties to prevent nuclear weapons proliferation, preventing the spread of technology for nuclear fuel enrichment and reprocessing, dealing with regional animosities, and engaging the entire international community in the joint enterprise of reducing the nuclear threat.
Contributors: Steven P. Andreasen, Bruce G. Blair, Matthew Bunn, Sidney D. Drell, Robert Einhorn, James E. Goodby, Rose Gottemoeller, David Holloway, Edward Ifft, Raymond Jeanloz, Raymond Juzaitis, Max M. Kampelman, Jack F. Matlock Jr., John E. McLaughlin, Henry S. Rowen, George P. Shultz, James Timbie
Commentaries by: Henry A. Kissinger, Sam Nunn, William J. Perry, and George P. Shultz